Now first, while still at home, he sacrifices to Zeus the Leader and the associated gods. Once the Great King had sent into their country an army of 120,000 men, to subdue them, but of all that great host not one had ever seen his home again. Some scholars[19] go so far as to say his views aligned with those of the democracy in his time. No walking or running is to be done beyond the area occupied by the mora, so that nobody goes far from his weapons. Your recently viewed items and featured recommendations, Select the department you want to search in. First of all, the ephors announce to the cavalry and hoplites which age-groups are required for service, and then to the craftsmen too. Xenophon ordered his men to deploy the line extremely thin so as to overlap the enemy, keeping a strong reserve. How could one truly deny that the following measure by Lycurgus merits tremendous admiration? Xenophon asserts that Socrates dealt with his prosecution in an exceedingly arrogant manner, or at least was perceived to have spoken arrogantly. Xenophon's works span several genres and are written in plain Attic Greek, which is why they have often been used in translation exercises for contemporary students of the Ancient Greek language. Harmosts are mentioned as still in post, which indicates that the chapter must have been written at the very latest in the 370s.4 Yet, as we have seen, Xenophon's other writings show how his devotion to Sparta remained unshaken into the 350s. The Athenian Xenophon looms large in the eyes of those interested in Sparta because of his life as well as his writings.¹ His evidence is very valuable, everyone acknowledges, owing to the circumstances of his personal history. At Tarsus the soldiers became aware of Cyrus's plans to depose the king, and as a result, refused to continue (Anabasis 1.3.1). He arranged that those who did have a supply with them should leave some behind in the area, and that those who needed it could break the seals, take what they required and leave the rest sealed up again. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. However, I should go back to how the king starts out with his army. To begin with, in other cities each man is master of his own children, slaves and property. But how inclined, how free, was he to impart that information, in different works, and perhaps to different audiences? 2012. Orders for deployment are given verbally by the enomotarch acting like a herald, so that the phalanxes13 thin out or grow thicker as required. This book, by a distinguished team of specialists in Spartan history, is the first of a short series from CPW, approaching Spartan reality by way of close analysis of our main contemporary Greek sources: their access, their biases, the literary structure and the genre of their works. The troops to be positioned behind these are marshalled by the eldest member of the king's entourage. In the Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers, Diogenes Laërtius observed that Xenophon was known as the "Attic Muse" because of the sweetness of his diction (2.6[clarification needed]). 1–6 are concerned, s. 7 being devoted to another age category, that of full citizens. [25] The Persian hardiness and austerity is combined with the luxuriousness of the Medes, two qualities that cannot coexist. And my view is that he was not mistaken in this either. His Anabasis (“Upcountry March”) in particular was highly regarded in antiquity and had a strong influence on Latin literature. Danzig, Gabriel. First, Xenophon’s work is characterized by novelty. He died in 354 B.C. 11. Rereading a famous passage in which the Ten Thousand first glimpse the sea, one is struck by the disproportion between its remembered impact and its brevity and indirect approach. Some historians believe that he also made a trip to Sicily during this period. And there is no doubt that as one of the early works which idealized Sparta, it has had a notable influence from ancient times onwards. He observed, however, that where an old man happened to have a young wife, he tended to keep a very jealous watch on her. This comprises all those Equals who mess with him, seers, doctors, pipers, the superintendents of the baggage train, and such ‘volunteers’20 as may be on the scene. [32] The following list of his works exhibits the extensive breadth of genres in which Xenophon wrote. Nevertheless, much of Xenophon's Socratic writing, especially Apology, concerns that very trial and the defence Socrates put forward. The girls of his family he has to support at home, and must explain to them why they cannot get husbands. ". Xenophon seldom mentions Sparta in the Cyropaedia. He recognized that where only enthusiasts show concern for virtue, their numbers are not sufficient to exalt their country: so at Sparta he made it compulsory for everyone to develop all the virtues as a public duty. One of the main plots of the Symposium is about the type of loving relationship (noble or base) a rich aristocrat will be able to establish with a young boy (present at the banquet alongside his own father). Although empire emerges in this case, this is also a sequence of events associated with democracy. Transactions of the American Philological Association. Clearly a prospective thief must keep awake at night, and by day must practise deception and lie in wait, as well as have spies ready if he is going to seize anything. They levy a stiff fine in their desire to establish the principle that anger must never prevail over respect for the law. Or Constitution of the Lacedaemonians.Lacedaemon and Sparta are the same. First he instituted currency of such a type that neither master nor servant could ever be unaware of a mere ten minas coming into a house: indeed this would require much space and a waggon for transport. I know that in the past too, for this very reason, expulsions of foreigners used to occur and absence abroad was not permitted, so that citizens should not be infected by lax habits caught from foreigners. Vol. They must keep themselves physically fit too, since their rivalry actually makes them come to blows whenever they meet. Except for the dialogues of Plato, they are the only surviving representatives of the genre of Socratic dialogue. Books . The former is a work of history while the latter Xenophon himself quite clearly labels as a work of praise: ἔπαινον γράψαι, 1.1; ἐπαινεῖται…ἐγκώμιον, 10.3; ἔπαινος, 11.1. "[30], Although Xenophon claims to have been present at the Symposium, this is impossible as he was only a young boy at the date which he proposes it occurred. But at Sparta everyone would be ashamed to be associated with a coward in his mess or to have him as a wrestling partner. So the Spartans, too, punish those who are caught as being incompetent thieves. Besides, they make their children's feet soft with shoes and their bodies delicate with changes of clothing. Though there is currently a movement in scholarship on Xenophon to see his portrait of Sparta as more nuanced and more critical than had hitherto been accepted,¹ it is all too common still to find it argued that Xenophon exempts Agesilaos from criticism.² This view finds much support in the effusively positive... Phleious, a city situated in the northern Peloponnese, whose history is poorly known outside the fourth century BC, occupies a strategic location at the crossroads of three valleys and routes leading from Corinth to Arcadia and from Stymphalia to the Argive plain.¹ In order to defend itself against the threats of its neighbour, Argos, the city drew close to Sparta very early; the Spartans, for their part, saw the political and military interest in this alliance from the start of the Peloponnesian War.². He permitted those who had reached adulthood to wear their hair long too, in the belief that they would thereby look taller and have a nobler, more fearsome appearance. The question of whether he did thereby endow Sparta with men whose size and strength are in any way superior, is for anyone who wishes to investigate for himself. Herodotus says that Cyrus led a rebellion against his maternal grandfather, Astyages king of Media, and defeated him, thereafter (improbably) keeping Astyages in his court for the remainder of his life (Histories 1.130). Every system of war looks to this as to the fountain-head when it comes to rearward movements, as it looks to Alexander for a pattern of resistless and intelligent advance. But now many are calling upon each other to prevent a further period of Spartan rule.24 It is certainly no wonder that these aspersions are being cast against them, since plainly they are obedient neither to heaven nor to the laws of Lycurgus. No general ever possessed a grander moral ascendant over his men. "Apologizing for Socrates: Plato and Xenophon on Socrates’ Behavior in Court." Xenophon framed Socrates’ defense, which both men admit was not prepared at all, not as failure to effectively argue his side, but as striving for death even in the light of unconvincing charges. His contemporaries perhaps saw things differently: for them the gods were unproblematic (not that everyone thought the same way about them, but Xenophon’s terms of reference were readily understood), and his insistence on a moral component to practical and (broadly) political skills may have been distinctive. When someone knows that fathers are to behave in this way, he is obliged to give orders to the children over whom he himself exercises control in the same fashion as he would like orders to be issued to his own as well. The rations he fixed in such a way that they should have neither too much nor too little food. So clearly it was Lycurgus' wish that by training the boys in all these ways he would make them more resourceful at feeding themselves and better fighters. So in the first place he required the female sex to take physical exercise just as much as males; next he arranged for women also, just like men, to have contests of speed and strength with one another, in the belief that when both parents are strong their children too are born sturdier. Moreover he permitted each king to select two fellow members for the mess as well, who – it may be noted – are also termed Pythii.25 He further permitted a king to take a piglet from every sow's litter, so that he should never lack victims with which to consult the gods at any time the need arises. Should any boy ever disclose to his father that he has been beaten by another, then it is a disgrace if the father does not give his son a further beating. At the same time it may be claimed on the other side that nowhere else does Xenophon offer material of such poor quality. Moreover in the streets he is required to give way, as well as to give up his seat even to younger men. To calculate the overall star rating and percentage breakdown by star, we don’t use a simple average. The ‘portrait’ of Lycurgus is part of the decoration of the Chamber of the House of Representatives in the United States Capitol building, Washington, D.C. John Paul Adams, CSUN (1994), “Xenophon, Sparta and the Cyropaedia ”, in A. Powell/S. I also want to explain the accord with the state which Lycurgus made for the kingship. The Ten Thousand eventually made their way into the land of the Carduchians, a wild tribe inhabiting the mountains of modern southeastern Turkey. 12. But Lycurgus made it clear that if anyone should shirk the effort required to keep his laws, then he would no longer be considered one of the Equals.10.

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