At the time of Joseph's birth, the Habsburgs ruled Austria, Bohemia, Hungary, parts of Italy and the Netherlands, and were accorded the rights of the Holy Roman Emperor in the German states. Joseph also encountered difficulties outside his empire.
Though Josepha loved her husband, he did not reciprocate the love and instead was cold and indifferent towards her.

On February 20, 1790, he breathed his last. © 2020 Biography and the Biography logo are registered trademarks of A&E Television Networks, LLC.

Catherine II, or Catherine the Great, served as empress of Russia for more than three decades in the late 18th century after overthrowing her husband, Peter III. Unable to bear the sudden tragedy and down with ill health, Isabella died a week later. Jesus is a religious leader whose life and teachings are recorded in the Bible’s New Testament. His brother, Leopold, who was to be Joseph's successor, did not visit his bedside. Joseph Goebbels served as minister of propaganda for the German Third Reich under Adolf Hitler — a position from which he spread the Nazi message. A History of the Habsburg Empire, 1974. This was consecutively followed by yet another pregnancy in 1763. But Maria Theresa objected to the idea of religious tolerance and refused to institute reforms that Joseph, a disciple of the Enlightenment, desperately wanted. To promote a sense of unity in the kingdom, he introduced German as the compulsory language of the state.
He appointed best of scholars and scientists for the University of Vienna. To counter Prussia's strength, Joseph forged an alliance with Catherine II of Russia, which brought the empire into a conflict in Turkey. In terms of foreign policy, Joseph II was an expansionist leader. Joseph II was born on March 13, 1741, in Vienna, Austria, to Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, and his wife Maria Theresa of Austria. This stretched the empire's resources and also opened the door for more unrest. Joseph aimed at building a centralized and uniform government that came under the supreme autocrat, i.e., himself. One of the "Enlightened Despots" of the 18th century, Joseph aspired to increase the power and efficiency of the state by placing all subjects of the realm, including the Church and the feudal nobility, under benevolent monarchical rule. Chief Joseph was a Nez Perce chief who, faced with settlement by whites of tribal lands in Oregon, led his followers in a dramatic effort to escape to Canada. Robert A. Kann. In 1770, his only child, Maria Theresa, became severely ill with pleurisy. Convinced that people should express their views freely, Joseph encouraged public debate, and issued decrees limiting press censorship and granting writers, journalists, scholars and scientists broad freedom to publish their works. Joseph II as a youth in Spanish court dress, oil painting, 1764/70. An enlightened despot, Joseph II is best remembered for his Josephinism, which was a collection of reforms that he introduced during his sole reign between 1780 and 1790. Joseph died believing that his reforms had weakened his empire instead of strengthening it. He expanded elementary education making it compulsory for all children. Besides, he upgraded the value of the land to impose a single and egalitarian tax on land. Joseph was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in March 1764. During his time of leadership, he united Greece, reestablished the Corinthian League and conquered the Persian Empire. In 1765, due to political pressure, he had to marry his second cousin, Princess Maria Josephs of Bavaria. There was restlessness in other parts of the dominion due to his war with the Ottomans. Contradictorily, he supported increase of bishoprics, parishes, and secular clergy. Following his father’s death in 1765, Joseph was promoted to the rank of Holy Roman Emperor, and was known as Joseph II. He was also trained by government officials on the working of different state administrations of the Austrian dominions and the Holy Roman Empire. The other reforms that Joseph II quickly administered were secularization of the church lands and reduction of the religious order and clergy. He personally scrutinized much administrative procedure. A proponent of enlightened absolutism, Joseph II is ranked as one of the three great enlightenment monarchs.


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