Nick Greene is a software engineer for the U.S. Navy Space and Naval Warfare Engineering Center. The mission of Pioneer 11 was approved in 1969 along with that of its twin probe Pioneer 10 which was launched a year before, that is, on 3rd March, 1972. The plaque includes a drawing of a man, a woman, and the location of the Sun and the Earth in the Milky Way Galaxy. Following their planetary encounters, the vehicles continued on escape trajectories from the solar system. Une grande antenne parabolique de 2,74 mètres de diamètre est fixée sur l'une des faces du boîtier. Pioneer 11 continue ensuite sa route vers les confins du Système solaire, tout en retransmettant des données sur le rayonnement cosmique et le vent solaire. A true pioneer, it paved the way for 2 more sophisticated missions – the 2 Voyagers in 1980 and ’81 – and Cassini from 2004 to 2017. It was traveling outwards at the rate of 11.38 km/s. The most complex mission was Pioneer Venus Multiprobe. Pioneers 10 and 11 were the first spacecraft to visit Jupiter (Pioneer 10 and 11) and Saturn (Pioneer 11 only). One of the main objectives of the Pioneer 11 mission was to explore the outer solar system. Pioneer 11 was the second mission to investigate Jupiter and the outer solar system and the first to explore the planet Saturn and its main rings. Depuis lors, elle continue sa route vers l'extérieur du Système solaire, en direction de la constellation de l'Aigle. As it traveled at high speeds during its encounter with Jupiter, the negative effects of radiation on the spacecraft were much less than that of Pioneer 10. Elle utilise l'assistance gravitationnelle de la planète géante pour accélérer en direction de Saturne qu'elle atteint le 1er septembre 1979. The spacecraft traveled underneath the ring plane taking beautiful pictures of Saturn's rings. Il est chargé de mesurer le champ magnétique de Jupiter ; le détecteur de particules chargées CPI (, un détecteur de particules chargées TRD (, (en) Pioneer: First to Jupiter, Saturn, and beyond, Richard O. Fimmel, NASA SP-446, 1980. By the time Pioneer reached Saturn it … Pioneer 10 est une sonde spatiale de petite taille (selon les standards des années 2010) d'une masse de 276 kg dont 29,6 kg d'instruments scientifiques et 27 kg de carburant (hydrazine). - An ultraviolet photometer: It is used to sense UV light to determine the quantities of gases such as hydrogen and helium in space. The imaging photopolarimeter and the trapped radiation detector are the other instruments that Pioneer 11 carries. Pioneer 11 discovered a small moon and an additional ring around Saturn. Instruments aboard the two craft studied Jupiter and Saturn's atmospheres, magnetic fields, moons, and rings, as well as the interplanetary magnetic and dust particle environments, the solar wind, and cosmic rays. These were the first spacecraft to ever visit Jupiter and Saturn. Pioneer 11, like Pioneer 10, used Jupiter's gravitational field to alter its trajectory radically. The use of identical systems (including flight hardware, flight software, and ground test equipment) and incorporation of existing designs from previous missions (including OSO and Intelsat) allowed the mission to meet its objectives at minimum cost.

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