2 (1918); and in E. W. Marsden. Hero of Alexandria (fl.Alexandria, a.d. 62) mathematics, physics, pneumatics, mechanics.. IV in Acta historica Scientiarum naturalium et medicinalium (Copenhagen, 1948), on Pneumatics; and The Mechanical Technology of Greek and Roman Antiquity, vol. I. Hammer-Jensen, “Die heronische Frage,” ibid., 63 (1928), 34–47. 17. The knowledge of his writings and scientific investigations was preserved in the writings of the late Roman, Byzantine, and Arabic scientists and encyclopedists. Technical Treatises (Oxford, 1971), with English trans, and notes. 11; and Philo, Belopoiika, Greek and German versions by H. Diels and E. Schramm, in Abhandlungen der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften for 1918, Phil.-hist. https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/hero-alexandria, "Hero of Alexandria invented. Both analysis and synthesis are framed as reductive sequences, in which two expressions, combining squares and rectangles formed from suitable lines, are transformed until it is manifest that they are equal. and other subjects. The following works have survived under the name of Hero: Automata, Barulkos, Belopoiica, Catoptrica, Cheirobalistra, Definitiones, Dioptra, Geometrica, Mechanica, De mensuris, Metrica, Pneumatica, and Stereometrica. to have been born in Egypt in about 10 AD. Chapter 38 describes a ship’s odometer and is certainly not by Hero.19, The Belopoiika contains the description of the gastraphetes, or stomach bow, a sort of crossbow in which the bowstring is drawn by the archer’s leaning his weight against the end of the stock, and two catapults worked by winches; two bundles of sinews provide the elastic power to propel the arrow, bolt, or stone. In any of the three cases, however, considerable latitude must be allowed for the determination both of the date of the equinox and of the hours in which the eclipse took place in Alexandria and in Rome: one might well wonder how much can be tolerated for Hero’s description to keep the status of an accurate observational report. See A. G. Drachmann, Ktesibios, Philon and Heron, vol. a computer scientist at the University of Sheffield, England, this string-based North Africa. of Alexandria?" Hero developed many mechanical machines that had practical uses. One of Hero's greatest achievements was the invention of the aeolipile, considered by many to be the first steam-powered engine. Much scholarly attention is being paid to the mechanical works of Hero. where we're interested in the way inventive minds He's best known for what we call All we do know comes from his books on engineering and science. 16 Oct. 2020 . References to Hero in Pappus of Alexandria and to Archimedes in Hero leave a span of approximately five hundred years as the one in which Hero must have lived. and suggested that it was taken from Philo of Byzantium (fl. xxii ff. Being the greatest experimenter of antiquity he represents the Hellenistic scientific tradition in Roman Egypt. Knorr makes an attempt to challenge the traditional ascription to Hero of the core of the Definitiones. Control. Only the introduction and the first six or seven chapters are finished. (October 16, 2020). of water by air pressure. engine that consisted of a sphere mounted on a boiler and having two canted Playthings take up so much of the book because such toys were very much in vogue at the time and the science of pneumatics was used for very little else. Also described in Pneumatics were siphons, a fountain, a coin-operated machine, a fire engine, and other steam-powered machines. The introduction treats the occurrence of a vacuum in nature and the pressure of air and water; although it is written in a very prolix style with occasional digressions, the train of thought is never lost. letting a machine make its own decisions. 3 (2005): 1–44. A lunar eclipse was described in Dioptra 35 as observable in Alexandria at the fifth hour (and in Rome at the third hour) of the night ten days before the vernal equinox. Encyclopedia.com. After the performance the theater withdraws. within 0.1 percent. Hero's attempt to demonstrate that the angle In 1948 I explained this by the assumption that he was writing a handbook for the makers of pneumatic instruments, but this is not necessarily correct.13 Hero was a teacher of physics, of which pneumatics is part. Apart from the first chapter of book 1, which contains the Barulkos, the work proceeds in an orderly fashion; it shows nothing of the disorder of the Pneumatics, but the style is equally clear and concise, with a single exception. This puts the assertions under the hypothetical mode of expression and strengthens the suspicion that the data of the eclipse in Dioptra 35 have been invented by Hero. A preliminary assessment of aims and extent of Hero’s commentary on the Elements is given here. Scholars have given different dates, ranging from 150 b.c. It appears that Hero was one of the first authors of technical commentaries. Little is known about Hero and his life. All we do know comes from his books on engineering This discursive style, so very different from the concise style of the technical descriptions, is found again in the Mechanics, in which Hero, before giving the propositions from Archimedes’ book On Uprights, presents the theory of the center of gravity as explained by Archimedes, not by Posidonius the Stoic, whose definition was not good enough.11 Here again there is a strong suggestion of a teacher repeating swiftly a piece of knowledge which his students ought to know. significant figures, is 2.2361, so I'm now within “A Propos des démonstrations alternatives et autres substitutions de preuves dans les Éléments d’Euclide.” Archive for History of Exact Sciences 59 (2004): 1–44. Egyptian Guillaumin, Jean-Yves. If a comparison can be made, it is more to the Alexandrian commentaries of the literary genre, where difficult passages of the edited author were explained but on the same grounds substantial modifications to the text were proposed. He also described an instrument called the hodometer for measuring distances traveled by wheeled vehicles. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1970, It is not clear whether Hero’s commentary aimed at didactical purposes, as is usually assumed for any such work. (Leiden. 16 Oct. 2020 . Visual rays move with infinite speed, and what moves with the greatest speed moves along a straight line, for, because of the speed, it tends to move along the shortest path and straight lines realize the shortest path between two fixed points. The first occurs in the Metrica, the second in the alternative proofs to Elements 2.2–10. This chapter would also seem to be a summary for students who should already know the subject. Encyclopedia of World Biography. ." Heronis Alexandrini Opera quae supersunt omnia, 5 vols. The unifying feature of such proofs is that the calculation is legitimated once the analysis has shown that the magnitude in question is uniquely determined by the givens of the problem. Four tries usually get you all the □. inventors had been making gadgets like that for 300 Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. ; Pappus, op. XVII in Acta historica Scientiarum naturalium et medicinalium (Copenhagen, 1963), on Mechanics; J. L. Heiberg, Geschichte der Nathematik und Kantrwissenschaften un Altertum, in Iwan von Müller, ed., Handbuch der Altertumswissenchaft, V, pt. While Hero did not invent the steam engine as we now know it, he did contribute to its eventual creation. language. Suppose you want the square root of N. You guess an “Doing Philosophy with Machines: Hero of Alexandria’s Rhetoric of Mechanics in Relation to the Contemporary Philosophy.” PhD diss., University of Cambridge, 2000. or the Babylonians. The rather minute theoretical possibility that Hero might have lived long after this date I have discussed and dismissed, while I have elsewhere reviewed the whole controversy about his dates, which is now of historical interest only.4, The question of what sort of man he was has also been debated.

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