Western technology was introduced, the coinage reformed, and the western Julian calendar made standard.

((Ibid, page 158-160)). After six weeks of digging and mining the Swedes had little to show for their efforts, this despite the Russian garrison itself running short of cannonballs and being reduced, in some cases to firing stones and rotting vegetation into their trenches. Consequently he was not able to begin his journey until late June, while the Count himself only set out to join his troops towards the end of July.

She acquired Halland, Jämtland, Härjedalen and the Gotland and Ösel islands from Denmark, together with Skåne, Bohuslän and Blekinge, while Russia ceded Ingria and Lexholm, which effectively cut her off from the Baltic Sea.3.

Command was transferred to Field Marshal Carl Gustav Rehnskiöld and General Adam Ludwig Lewenhaupt. Your email address will not be published. As the Swedes battled, the Russian right swung around to flank them. The positions would provide flanking fire against the advancing Swedes and help protect the main camp. Meanwhile the rest of the Swedish infantry saw Russian cavalry pouring through the gaps that separated the six original redoubts. Du Croy’s worst fears were to be realised when, at around 10 a.m. on the morning of the 20th November the Swedish army began to appear along the tree-covered slopes of the Hermansberg ridge. of a battle. So angry did Charles become with these hit and run tactics that upon learning that the Russian army was approaching the town of Gadyach, and despite the bitter cold he immediately marched to confront them. ought to surrender. challenge, maybe because it was bigger than the others or because it had The 14,000 Swedish troops under Lybecker had also received orders to advance from Finland and threaten St Petersburg. Still they pressed on without firing a shot in return, and although the line was now far from aligned correctly, the Guard battalions on the Swedish right burst into the Russian ranks, driving them back on their second reserve line. The broken Swedish army retreated toward the Dinner River; unlike Napoleon’s Grand Armee in December 1812, they were a disciplined fighting force capable of inflicting damage.

He also wanted to teach Augustus a lesson for his duplicity in invading Livonia, and considered it, “derogatory to myself and my honour to have the slightest dealings with a man who had acted in such a dishonourable and shameful way.”19 However, the main problem, which Charles failed to grasp, was the difficulty in winning over the Polish nobility, and the Herculean task of appeasing the Polish people and the church with a replacement for the Polish throne. The river offered protection, but its banks were so steep and the river so broad that retreat would have been all but impossible. 1,200 Swedish infantry and dragoons in the siege lines in the front of the Advancing with 24,000 men, but only 4 guns, Charles first invested the city of Poltava along the banks of the Vorskla. The battle ended Sweden’s status as a major power and marked the beginning of Russian supremacy in eastern Europe. Charles now marched toward Lithuania and Grodno, key to the Nieman River line.

General Count Adam Lewenhaupt, Governor of Swedish Courland, had been ordered to gather what troops and supplies he could and join the King’s main force. twelve years. Russia could now dominate the Polish and Baltic lands without any Swedish opposition, and Peter became the leading ruler in the region. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Rehnskiöld and he probably intended to replicate the success of the battle

Of the original force of 3,000 men only 400 remained, His army was outnumbered by almost two to one and he had only four small three- pounder cannon to the enemy’s forty-six field pieces.

But the Russians were no longer an armed rabble; they were now fighting soldiers. One estimate puts Swedish losses at 6,900 dead and 2,700 prisoners. In 1951, Bill Downs recalled his reports on the Battle of the Dnieper as a prime example of Soviet censorship.He wrote: "As for the suspicion and fear, the best example I have of that concerns the Battle of Poltava near the end of 1943.I went with my secretary to the Lenin Library to look up the First Battle of Poltava in 1709 when Peter the Great defeated Charles of Sweden. Peter however was still uncertain about the situation, fearing that Menshikov may have only gained a localised success, and that the resilient Swedes were holding something back. operated in resulted in difficulties to feed their army and this would soon If Roos used his If the Swedes attacked with energy and resolution, the road to the ford could be cut and Peter and the entire Russian army would be trapped inside their entrenched camp with the river at their backs.

The Swedes were veteran soldiers, accustomed to victory, and generally looked down on the Russians with ill-disguised contempt. Nearly everyone in the UK lives within half an hour’s drive of a battlefield. The Battle of Poltava. A cry arose from the Swedish ranks, “Advance cavalry,” and their massed squadrons of blue-coated troopers lurched forward into the oncoming Russian tide. The Russian year 7206 was now 1698. Some of those “remains” were in remarkably good condition, particularly some of the cavalry formations from the left wing. the edge of the Yakovetski woods and where they would be out of range from the Russians. Because of this other generals within the army were as equally in the dark concerning the battle plans as Lewenhaupt, small wonder then that command and control began to fall apart soon after the battle began. Charles XII had not yet fully

True, powder stocks were low, but Rehnskjold was a cavalryman who hated artillery, and the Swedes had faith in the shock action of cold steel. mass flight through the forest. He has appeared on The History Channel as a featured expert. Russia’s first line of defense was a series of rivers that ran north–south, including the Vistula, the Nieman and the Dnieper. Riding to within musket range of the Russians he was struck by a ball, which hit him in the left foot, travelling along the whole length from heel to toe. An invasion of Russia was the only way to achieve that end.’29, Breaking camp on 6th June the Swedish army marched towards Borisov on the River Berezina where some 8,000 Russians under General Goltz were well dug-in and prepared to contest the crossing, and once again Charles completely confounded his opponent by marching south and crossing the river at Berezina-Sapezhinskaya, turning the Russian position and making another defensive river line untenable to the Russians. The Russians were a little late off the mark, but once Peter had concluded his peace treaty with the Turks in August 1700, his army began to move.7, Born on the 17th June 1682, Charles was a skinny and rather frail child, however when he was only four years old he was riding out with his father and taking part in tough masculine pursuits. This was entirely against the spirit, if not the letter, of his orders. formidable army surrendered three days later at Perevolochna. While Rehnskjöld was taking all this in, he noticed that the last two redoubts, those to which he was closest, were not complete. ((Robert K.Massie, Peter the Great, page 502)), As the Swedes shook themselves back into line Peter was delivering a short speech to his troops.

Nothing less than the future of Russia was about to be decided on the banks of the Vorskla, a tributary of the mighty Dnieper. The Cossacks were the legendary horsemen of the plains, a hard-riding, hard-drinking semi-military caste with a well-deserved reputation for freebooting. The discrepancy can be seen in part as Swedish aggression versus Russian defensive tactics. and it was nearly annihilated by overwhelming Russian forces. In the late-17th and early-18th centuries the Baltic and its surrounding waters were basically a Swedish lake, and its shores part of a mighty Swedish empire. This left Uppland regiment isolated

Here panic and disorder reigned and soon spread to the rest of the battalions, and although Lewenhaupt did his best to stem the route his words and actions were of no avail. much reduced Swedish infantry had to attack without proper support from the

Swedish ranks were thoroughly peppered by Russian balls, but the bluecoats did not fire a single shot in return. To their credit and outstanding morale and discipline, the Swedes managed to turn and face this new threat. Finally, Lewenhaupt was cornered and forced to battle. Charles agreed and new scratched together orders were issued. The Battle of Poltava was a disaster for Sweden and a turning point in the Great Northern War. This was an unnecessary fight as the plan was In the annals of military history magazines, this is one of those moments.

organised as they were in four infantry columns in the front (led by colonel Updates? howitzer which delivered deadly canister fire on the Swedes when they The center division was under Gen. Carl Gustav Roos, one column of four infantry battalions. One by one Russia’s protective “moats” had been crossed, so natural defense would have to give way to battlefield decisions. Swedish casualties numbered 6,900 dead and wounded, as well as 2,800 taken prisoner. Poltava was proving a tough nut to crack; its Russian garrison stubborn and courageous. So he A possible explanation to why Roos Calling for help from the Anglo-Dutch, which had been agreed upon in the terms of the Treaty of Rijswick, and the Altona agreement* the Swedish fleet made a bold move along the Swedish coast, evading the Danish fleet and joining up with an Anglo-Dutch squadron which enabled them to land 10,000 troops on Zealand, from where they marched on Copenhagen. latter being annihilated. Curiously enough the Swedes made no attempt the stop them II page 162 [, Robert I. His injured left foot was freshly bandaged, but otherwise he was fully uniformed, his drawn sword laying by his side.

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