Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Abd el-Krim proved highly successful at organizing indigenous resistance to Spanish advances into the central Rif in June–August 1921, and those clashes marked the outbreak of the. Spain declared war on Morocco (Illustrated London News, 1859). Omissions? [6], In a convention dated 27 June 1900, France and Spain agreed to recognize separate zones of influence in Morocco, but did not specify their boundaries. In addition, the Spanish army had regrouped on the eastern front, invoking the Reconquista—the Christian effort to drive the Moors from the Iberian Peninsula during the Middle Ages—in a bid to regain lost territory. Tension between colonial Spanish forces and Rif peoples in northern Morocco culminated in a series of guerrilla attacks led by Berber leader Abd el-Krim on Spanish fortifications in June–July 1921. Rebels in the Rif. The coordination of French and Spanish forces during the late summer of 1925 led to an amphibious landing of over 18,000 Spanish troops to the west of Alhucemas Bay on September 8, 1925, and a concomitant push of perhaps as many as 20,000 French troops north from their protectorate. Many of those may have been Rif civilians who suffered from privation, Spanish retaliation, and the employment of aerial assaults using both conventional and poison gas bombs. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization. The establishment of the French protectorate in Morocco in March 1912 resulted from the implosion of the Moroccan polity after decades of European interference in Moroccan affairs. The Spanish protectorate in Morocco[a] was established on 27 November 1912 by a treaty between France and Spain[1] that converted the Spanish sphere of influence in Morocco into a formal protectorate. Despite that dire situation, Lyautey argued against collaboration with the Spanish, a stance he had advocated since the beginning of hostilities. It was fought mainly in the Rif, a mountainous region of northern Morocco. [9], In March 1905, the German Kaiser, Wilhelm II, visited Tangier, a city of international character in northern Morocco. Within weeks, Spain lost all of its territory in the region. Morocco sued for peace after the Spanish victory at the Battle of Tetuán. Occurring during the Rif War, the series revolves around a group of nurses from Madrid, Spain who are sent to Morocco by Queen Victoria Eugenia to open a hospital in the war torn region of North Africa. The issue of political and military responsibilities associated with the rout became a leitmotif in Spanish politics for a number of years. It began with a conflict over the borders of the Spanish city of Ceuta and was fought in northern Morocco. Rif War, also called War of Melilla, Rif also spelled Riff, (1921–26), conflict between Spanish colonial forces and Rif peoples led by Muhammad Abd el-Krim. The Hispano-Moroccan War, also known as the Spanish–Moroccan War, the First Moroccan War, the Tetuán War, or, in Spain, as the African War (Spanish: Guerra de África), was fought from Spain's declaration of war on Morocco on 22 October 1859 until the Treaty of Wad-Ras on 26 April 1860. Spanish troops and Berber auxiliaries guarding a house containing Rif prisoners during the Rif War. A commission headed by Gen. Juan Picasso González was set up in August 1921 to investigate the debacle and to fix military responsibility for it. Spanish 3rd Corps under General Ros de Olano arrived in Ceuta ( Hardman, 1996). In Morocco, the First World War saw German secret agents seeking to incite an insurrection against the French administration. The casus belli for Spain were the unrelenting attacks of Berber tribesmen on Spanish settlements in North Africa; following unfruitful negotiations with Sultan Abd al-Rahman vis-à-vis the reparations (the latter, unable to control the cabilas, actually died in the midst of negotiations and was replaced by his brother Muhammad IV), a declaration of war propelled by Leopoldo O'Donnell was unanimously passed by the Congress of Deputies on 22 October 1859.[2]. [5], The key motivation for intervention, although less openly stated, was the belief that Morocco was Spain’s last chance to maintain its position in the Concert of Europe, as it was the one area in which it could claim sufficient interest to generate some diplomatic strength with respect to the European powers. After the successful 1925 Alhucemas landing, the French–Spanish alliance ended up achieving victory and putting an end to the war. Spanish artillery firing outside Melilla during the Rif War. //-->. Captain General D Leopoldo O’Donnel, Count of Lucena, and the Spanish Commander-in-Chief, arrived in Ceuta on this date or just before ( Hardman, 1996). He is the author of. Another small skirmish lasting from 1030 until dark ( Hardman, 1996). Morocco recognizes Spanish sovereignty over, "A History of Modern Morocco" pages 24–25 Susan Gilson Miller, Cambridge University Press 2013, This page was last edited on 20 September 2020, at 08:54. From June 17 to 25, 1925, French and Spanish delegations met in Madrid to negotiate a series of accords that committed both sides to, among other agreements, a military pact against the Republic of the Rif. Spain declared war on Morocco (Illustrated London News, 1859). The Spanish protectorate in Morocco was established on 27 November 1912 by a treaty between France and Spain that converted the Spanish sphere of influence in Morocco into a formal protectorate. Spanish and Portuguese Military History, Wargaming, and other stuff. This page was last edited on 27 October 2020, at 00:19. In a matter of weeks, Spain had lost all of the territory it had occupied since 1909 and suffered anywhere from 8,000 to 10,000 deaths, including that of Fernández Silvestre. The British goal in these negotiations with France was to ensure that a weaker power (Spain) held the strategic coast opposite Gibraltar in return for Britain ceding all their influence in Morocco. Spain considers both cities integral parts of the Spanish geography, since they were part of Spain for centuries before the occupation of Morocco. At Wilhelm's urging, Sultan Abd el Aziz called for an international conference. The Rif War lasted from June 1921 to May 1926. The Moors attempted to take a Spanish newly built redoubt on the right of the Spanish positions in front of Ceuta ( Hardman, 1996). The Moors attempted to take a Spanish newly built redoubt on … On 3 October 1904, France and Spain concluded a treaty that defined their precise zones. The Spanish lost more than 13,000 soldiers at Annual in July–August 1921. The Spanish had earlier begun work on a redoubt on the outskirts of Ceuta (Woolman, 1968). Since France had given up her ambitions in Ottoman Libya in a convention with Italy in 1903, she felt entitled to a greater share of Morocco. Berber soldiers in the employ of the Spanish army guarding the royal train of Alfonso XIII during his review of Spanish troops in Morocco in the late stages of the Rif War. On July 18, 1936, the Spanish Civil War begins as a revolt by right-wing Spanish military officers in Spanish Morocco and spreads to mainland Spain. A week before the report was to be published, however, Alfonso was rescued from a humiliating situation by a… 19 Nov 1859. The nurses learn firsthand the cruelty of war, but still find time for romance. At a time when most European nations were stepping up the acquisition of vast colonial empires, Spain was losing the last remnants of hers. google_ad_height = 90; In July 1927 Spanish Morocco was declared officially pacified. Illustrated London News, 486-487. Pallas Armata. The evacuation also reflected a general war weariness among a significant portion of the Spanish populace, as well as a realization that the conflict was costing the Spanish treasury more than it could afford. As the army advanced a fleet bombarded Tangier, Asilah, and Larache. Around 400 Spanish were killed or wounded. Total Spanish losses were 1,000 dead and 3,000 wounded. The Spanish took some Moors prisoner. With the money safely banked the Spanish army evacuated Tetuán. Barrow, Andrew. [12], The Spanish Civil War started in 1936 with the partially successful coup against the Republican Government, which began in Spanish Morocco by an uprising of the Spanish Army of Africa stationed there, although within a day uprisings in Spain itself broke out. Since France already held a protectorate over the entire country and controlled Morocco's foreign affairs (since 30 March 1912), it also held the power to delegate a zone to Spanish protection. It was fought primarily in the Rif, a mountainous region of northern Morocco.

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+ How we made $200K with 4M downloads.

How we made $200K with 4M downloads.