This denunciation seems also to show a weariness and irritation at the raising of the Moon Agreement within COPUOS as an attractive path forward. The most important multilateral discussions on the use of space resources take place at the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS), and especially at the COPUOS Legal Subcommittee. In this case, potential cooperation is linked both to Artemis program, and to potentially shared legal interests. Because of Article II, outer space is simply not subject to such appropriation attempts. Despite the satisfaction this would give international space lawyers that the harmony of international space law remains intact, this approach is politically unlikely. However, this order should not be construed as a renunciation of COPUOS. It is part of NASA’s all-out Artemis effort, and it is undoubtedly the culmination of a long interagency process. Some have asked why the Administration would release this executive order now, in the midst of a pandemic. Executive Workspace has been great to … Executive Workspace has been great to work with and is a trusted partner. We'd like to take this opportunity to thank all our clients, candidates and friends for their continued support over the last 12 months. For example, one cannot create a claims system without some level of mutual recognition and protection of claims, be that on a bilateral, minilateral, or multilateral basis. Or, a minilateral agreement developed outside of COPUOS, and between like-minded states? These activities within the Legal Subcommittee attest to the increasing attention paid to space resources within COPUOS. These shared understandings are based on the 1967 Outer Space Treaty, especially the freedoms of Article I, and suited towards fostering the purposes of the treaty listed in its preamble. As such, they represent a possible starting point for discussions on taking “all appropriate actions to encourage international support for the public and private recovery and use of resources in outer space, consistent with the policy set forth in section 1 of this order” as Section 3 of EO 13914 directs the US government to do. Space Policy Directive 1 states that “the United States will lead the return of humans to the Moon for long-term exploration and utilization, followed by human missions to Mars and other destinations.” As a senior administration official described, the new executive order is designed to support NASA’s Artemis program, which will rely in part on utilizing lunar resources to support a sustained return to the Moon. In the midst of the pandemic, we may find ourselves thinking of astronauts more as advisors on how to handle isolation than as representatives of a singularly human achievement, our expansion into outer space. This Executive Order (EO 13914) does not fundamentally change any US position on space resources, but has already sparked international reactions, ranging from supportive, to skeptical, to outright accusatory. Australia and China are somewhat outliers in this group of countries. US administration officials indicated that this Executive Order means that the United States is willing to pursue conversations with like-minded states towards a stable and predictable legal environment for space resources utilization. Even today no major space power is a party, and only 18 states are parties to it. This is because other approaches exist besides high-level multilateral treaty-making. Like the Outer Space Treaty and the CLSCA, this executive order is a step in the right direction. The executive order fits within the Outer Space Treaty, which the United States and the Soviet Union negotiated. US officials have seen Chinese positions on space resources utilization (as expressed in multilateral forums) shift over recent years. The Moon Treaty is widely seen as a failed, problematic treaty, finalized in 1979 but which did not enter into force until 1984 when the minimum required number of states ratified it (five.) The issuance of this executive order must be viewed not in isolation but instead in the larger context of US space exploration and space commercialization policy. As of 2020, COPUOS comprises 95 Member States, and is one of the largest committees in the UN system. This would be regrettable, as space development advocates have long existed before the Trump Administration and understand that ambitions for space will be inherently international. For example, the 2010 NASA Authorization Act, passed by a Democratic Congress and signed by President Obama, makes several references to the use of resources as a key part of space exploration. Thankfully, those who aspire to develop space resources are not the first to ponder this question. This activity within COPUOS is one of the prompts that we believe gave rise to the executive order—an order that explicitly rejects the Moon Agreement on a number of fronts. [22] For those “on the fence” on whether we need a space resources treaty, including like-minded countries eager to develop space resources, this could lead to a renewed interest in the Moon Agreement. The Act provides that a US citizen engaged in commercial recovery of a space resource is entitled to any such resource obtained (See 51 U.S.C. Implementation of space resources governance will require international coordination, but that coordination might take several forms. Work at COPUOS has also resulted in later, specifically-focused resolutions adopted by the UN General Assembly: Resolution 59/115 on the application of the concept of the “Launching State” (2004), Resolution 62/101 on enhanced registration practices of space objects (2007), and Resolution 68/74 with recommendations on national space legislation (2013). Individual states (including the United States) cannot provide that certainty on a unilateral basis. They initially placed the whole team & over the last 5 years have been responsible for members of the team. The executive order is best viewed as maintaining and strengthening a position that the United States has held for decades. There are currently a variety of views on which avenue the development of new norms for the development of space resources should take. These instruments include the Direct Broadcasting Principles (1982), the Remote Sensing Principles (1986), the Nuclear Power Sources Principles (1992), and the Benefits Declaration (1996). The executive order affirms the administration’s support for the public and private use of space resources, directs the Secretary of State to oppose the 1979 Moon Agreement and object to any attempt to treat it as customary international law, and directs the Secretary to work with other governments to enable safe and sustainable operations for the commercial recovery and use of space resources. Can't say enough good things about Annie, who works the front desk. This essay will explain how EO 13914 restates existing US positions rather than taking new ones, place this order in the context of recent and ongoing international discussions on space resource use, and conclude with a prognosis for how the United States will engage the international community under this order. Additionally, for issues of purely state concern, it is not proper for COPUOS to determine how member states should be fulfilling their authorization and supervision obligations. Note: we are temporarily moderating all comments submitted to deal with a surge in spam. Find helpful customer reviews and review ratings for OneSpace Executive Desk, ... the measurement of the"work space" is 13.75in, depth by 29.75in width from left side to right end if lap drawer. by Marek Danyluk It's been a big year at Space Executive, full of new arrivals, numerous client, networking and team events and much, much more. He is also a Professor of Law (Adjunct) at Georgetown University Law Center, where he co-teaches the Space Law Seminar to J.D. It’s not going to happen.”. US officials have also spoken in the past on the role space resources will play in growing the commercial space economy. [7] Use of resources has consistently been part of global space exploration strategies prior to the Trump Administration. There will likely be a role for the UN’s Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space in discussions on space resources, but there are also opportunities for bilateral and multilateral agreements. But the great work continues: we press toward the Moon—this time to stay—and on toward Mars. Australia was mentioned in connection to the executive order, despite the order’s emphasis on moving beyond discussion of the Moon Agreement.

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