A meeting was held at MSFC with representatives of the camera manufacturers, North American, Grumman, and MSFC to review ATM camera stowage and handling and the CSM and LM stowage. 216-221, 1971. In fact the xternal solar/meteoroid shield had ripped off 63 seconds into ascent, tearing away one solar panel wing and debris jamming the remaining panel. MSFC had earlier awarded American Optical Company a contract to build a dynamic simulator for use in developing the pointing control system. About a day later, the three-man crew would ride aboard a Saturn IB into orbit to link up with the Workshop-ATM cluster, thus beginning the manned portion of the mission. A subcontract was awarded to International Latex Corporation for development of this suit. General Electric Company, Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, was awarded a contract for the design, development, and delivery of a microwave radiometer-scatterometer/altimeter instrument for the Skylab Program. 43). Objectives of the microwave radiometer- scatterometer/altimeter experiment would be to determine the usefulness of active and passive microwave systems in providing information on land and sea conditions. Years later, the micro-densitometer scans of the original film were made and stored on magnetic tapes.
S-IC-15 on display at Michoud Assembly Facility, S-II-15 on display at Johnson Space Center, Skylab B Orbital Workshop (S-IVB-515) at the National Air and Space Museum. RADSCAT was the first western Earth-looking radar scatterometer carried in space, setting the stage for the more operational systems that followed. Thin metallic films in front of the slit blocked out undesired ultraviolet and visible light. This would allow them to operate their instruments and obtain data on their efficiency during such tests.
The signals from the detectors were transmitted to the ground by telemetry. The use of the existing space suit sun visors would be required during extravehicular viewing. The plan summarized Marshall's developmental work on ATM-type systems so far and contained specific technical and managerial concepts for implementing the ATM project. All four stages had been in storage for several years. Images taken through 6 different filters were recorded on film which was then returned to Earth on return flights for processing.
Upon completion of the Skylab Program, it would return to Port Canaveral.
Terbium Collector Astronauts participated in both scuba gear and pressurized space suits. A second Skylab supported by two 90-day CSMs and a rescue vehicle. The goal of this program was to develop a world datum accurate to within ±10 m and to refine the description of the Earth's gravity field. The AM enabled astronauts to conduct spacewalks, and the MDA included a prime and backup docking port for the Apollo spacecraft. Other factors which contributed to the cost increase were new state-of-the art developments for which NASA or the Principal Investigators had no previous experience. The study group would define the capabilities of the presently baselined S IVB attitude control system, the Apollo service module reaction control system, and the Apollo telescope mount control moment gyro system to determine if incompatibilities existed with the operations requirements and the proposed experiments and sensors. The instrument would be part of the Earth-resources experiment package, which also included a multispectral photographic facility, an infrared scanner, and a 10-band multispectral scanner.
Attempts were made to obtain spectra of flares and other active areas on the sun.
During the Mercury program a modified version of the Goodrich Navy Mark IV suit was used.
The sections would be joined once in orbit. One system was in the Command and Service Module that brought the astronauts up to Skylab.
Following the review, the hardware was shipped to MSC for crew familiarization in preparation for a multiple docking adapter crew compartment fit and function review.
It was agreed that MSC would develop a list of trainer hardware, identify trainer systems, and develop the trainer acceptance checkout procedures. The MDA task force held an initial meeting at MSC on 10-11 April. Mueller observed that Douglas' idea for a 30-day capability seemed technically sound. It was designed to photographically monitor the brightness of the solar corona over a wavelength range extending from 3500 - 7000 A. At the December Manned Space Flight Management Council meeting, Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight George E. Mueller voiced a desire to have McDonnell examine the feasibility of using Gemini subsystems on an airlock experiment in conjunction with the Apollo Applications Program S-IVB Workshop concept.
Everything from the crew's exercise time to nutritional requirements to scheduling came under scrutiny and debate.
S-054 was developed at AS&E (American Science and Engineering) Corporation, Cambridge, MA. 'We frankly don't believe that the job can be done in this manner in any reasonable length of time,' he said. Also, the system would include use of the LaRC-developed control moment gyro system for fine pointing control.
Figure 13: Illustration of the S-190A camera system: Magazines (left) and the lens/filter array (right), image credit: NASA, Ref. Also, the remaining solar arrays were only generating 25 watts of power, according to NASA.
Shutter speeds were selectable at 5, 7, and 10 msec with a curtain velocity of 2.8 m/s.
AS&E and GSFC jointly pioneered the use of the Wolter lens, grazing incidence telescope for imaging the sun in X-rays. The ATM would be a manned solar observatory making measurements of the Sun by telescopes and instruments above the Earth's atmosphere. MSFC provided the principal inputs on such aspects as schedules, funding, and technical performance.
Around 300 scientific and technical experiments were conducted onboard the Skylab space station in various fields including microgravity (crystal growth), medicine/space life sciences (test of the effects of long-duration space flights), biology, astronomy, and sun and Earth observations.
The objective was to photograph the airglow, in particular at twilight, in several spectral bands within the VIS and mid-ultraviolet spectral range.
This allowed for a splashdown closer than 550 km of San Diego, and a crew stay time aboard the recovery ship of only 17 hours.
Some significant features of a revised Apollo and AAP-integrated program plan were: CSM would be available to support the first four AAP launches; AAP-1/ AAP-2 in early 1969 were to accomplish OWS objectives; AAP-3/AAP-4 in mid-1969 were to accomplish the 56-day ATM objectives in conjunction with reuse of the OWS. The instrument design represents a first implementation of a combined passive/active microwave sensor. The MDA also housed the Earth Resources Experiment Package. Both of the latter would be used in the Apollo Applications Program.
One torsion bar was replaced and the others retorqued.
The unused part of the solar spectrum was being reflected out into space in order to avoid unnecessary heating of the instrument. MSFC definitized the existing contract with McDonnell Douglas for two Orbital Workshops for the Apollo Applications Program, converted S IVB stages to be launched by Saturn V boosters. S-192 is a 13-band optomechanical instrument developed by Honeywell, Lexington, MA (PI: C. L. Korb, NASA/JSC).
MSC would have responsibility for Earth resources and lunar scientific experiments.
Among these were fixed payload shroud, oxygen, and nitrogen bottle installation; cooling of the ATM control and display; deletion of the scientific airlock; design and fabrication of the solar array system; installation of experiments; and MDA integration and checkout. Under conditions of grazing incidence, the gratings reflected sufficient energy even in the 1-10 nm wavelength region (soft X-ray region) to make film recordings feasible when long-time exposures could be made. Skylab B was a proposed second US space station similar to Skylab that was planned to be launched by NASA for different purposes, mostly involving the Apollo–Soyuz Test Project, but was canceled due to lack of funding. Following the decision of Deputy Administrator Robert C. Seamans, Jr., to assign development responsibility for the ATM project to MSFC (see 11 July 1966), the manned space flight organization had concentrated its efforts on selecting the best location for the ATM within the Apollo spacecraft.
The Workshop was scheduled to arrive at Michoud 17 December and at MSC 5 January.
Saturn V SA-515 was originally designated for Apollo 20, later as a backup Skylab launch vehicle. NASA announced completion of major preflight verification test of Skylab Workshop at the McDonnell Douglas Huntington Beach plant.
25), The primary objective of the technology instrument was to serve a) as a source of experimental short-pulsed data to be used in the design of future spaceborne radar altimeters and b) to demonstrate the ability of spaceborne altimeters in the acquisition of geodetic contour and oceanographic information over selected target areas. Figure 33: Construction detail of the S-082A instrument (image credit: NASA), S-082B was developed by NRL. Under the current modification, the company would maintain nine Saturn IB boosters in storage. A cluster communications compatibility meeting was held at MSC.
NASA Deputy Director Robert C. Seamans, Jr., told Associate Administrator for Space Science and Applications Homer E. Newell that he had no choice but to delay initiation of development competition on the ATM until the AAP funding picture for the next two fiscal years became clearer. MSC representatives participated in the review. A study was conducted to determine the feasibility of providing an artificial gravity operating mode for a second OWS.
The airlock could also be depressurized and sealed off for exit into space outside the vehicle. The first was launched in 1973 and the other put in storage, while NASA considered how to use the remaining assets from Apollo. Early in the mission, Garriott and Lousma performed an EVA to erect a new twin-pole solar shield that provided better thermal control for the remainder of the Skylab missions.