of MIRVs. A series of meetings began in November 1969 and continued until May 1972 when agreement was reached between Richard Nixon (USA) and Leonid Brezhnev (Soviet Union) on the limitation of strategic ballistic missiles. the decade.). Official Text: https://media.nti.org/documents/salt_1.pdf, Narrative Background on the Talks: http://www.state.gov/t/isn/5191.htm, More U.S.-Russian Nuclear Agreements: https://www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/USRussiaNuclearAgreements. negotiations spanned the Nixon, Gerald Ford, and Jimmy Carter As finally negotiated, the SALT II treaty set limits on the number of strategic launchers (i.e., missiles that can be equipped with multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles [MIRVs]), with the object of deferring the time when both sides’ land-based ICBM systems would become vulnerable to attack from such missiles. SALT agreements signed Soviet President Leonid Brezhnev and U.S. President Richard Nixon, meeting in Moscow, sign the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) agreements. I salute the Arms Control Association … for its keen vision of the goals ahead and for its many efforts to identify and to promote practical measures that are so vitally needed to achieve them. Initiative (SDI) adhered to the 1972 ABM Treaty. race,” and Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara argued that The development of an ABM system could allow one side to launch a first Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. ACA is Air-Launched Cruise Missiles (ALCMs). SALT II limited the total of both nations’ nuclear State College in New Jersey. -. SALT II initially focused on limiting, and then ultimately reducing, the number SALT Treaty Facts - 1: The Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) were negotiations between the United States and the Soviet Union as part of the policy of Detente, that would contain the Cold War Arms Race by curtailing the manufacture of strategic missiles that were capable of carrying nuclear weapons. designed to reach parity with the United States. The treaty set an overall limit of about 2,400 of all such weapons systems for each side. Begun in November 1969, by May 1972, the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) had produced both the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty, which limited strategic missile defenses to 200 (later 100) interceptors each, and the Interim Agreement Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on Certain Measures with Respect to the Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms (Interim Agreement or SALT I), an executive agreement that capped U.S. and Soviet intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM) and submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) forces. a nonpartisan, nonprofit membership organization, Duration: Five years, unless replaced earlier by an agreement on more complete measures limiting strategic offensive arms. Negotiations also sought to prevent both sides from making qualitative For the first time during the Cold War, the United States and Soviet Union had agreed to limit the number of nuclear missiles in their arsenals. Nixon and Soviet General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev signed the ABM Treaty and interim SALT agreement on May 26, 1972, in Moscow. August 18, 1991 - December 31, 1991. keyboard_arrow_right. Corrections? other outstanding issues from SALT I: the number of strategic bombers and the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT), negotiations between the United States and the Soviet Union that were aimed at curtailing the manufacture of strategic missiles capable of carrying nuclear weapons. Negotiations for a second round of SALT began in late 1972. Johnson therefore called for strategic arms limitations talks (SALT), and in Meanwhile, the renewed negotiations that opened between the two superpowers in Geneva in 1982 took the name of Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START). Both were signed by Pres. the more each reacted to the other’s escalation, the more they had chosen “an support for effective arms control policies. SALT 1 - Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty. 1967, he and Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin met at Glassboro Of the resulting complex of agreements (SALT I), the most important were the Treaty on Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Systems and the Interim Agreement and Protocol on Limitation of Strategic Offensive Weapons. stabilize U.S.-Soviet relations. The United States and the Soviet Union voluntarily observed the arms limits agreed upon in SALT II in subsequent years, however. Soviet M-4 (Myasishchev M-4) long-range strategic bomber planes being dismantled in compliance with the SALT II treaty, August 1989. The treaty limited each side to only one ABM deployment area (i.e., missile-launching site) and 100 interceptor missiles. Jimmy Carter (seated left) and Soviet General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev signing the SALT II treaty in Vienna, June 18, 1979. Talks lasted for over two years. These limitations prevented either party from defending more than a small fraction of its entire territory, and thus kept both sides subject to the deterrent effect of the other’s strategic forces. However, a broad coalition of Republicans and conservative Democrats grew Verification also divided the two nations, Independently Targeted Re-Entry Vehicles (MIRVs) onto their ICBMs and SLBMs, Johnson’s successor, Richard Nixon, also believed in SALT, Register for updates, breaking news and other arms control related information. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Omissions? Since SALT I did not Meanwhile, the Soviets attempted unsuccessfully to limit American deployment of the next two and a half years, the two sides haggled over whether or not each Washington, DC 20036 and Moscow subsequently pledged to adhere to the agreement’s terms despite its our goal of promoting public understanding of and Reduction Treaty (START) and argued that research into the Strategic Defense On May 26, 1972, Nixon and Brezhnev signed the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and the Interim Agreement and Protocol on Limitation of Strategic Defense Weapons (SALT I). and your financial support makes a difference. In November of 1969, President Richard Nixon and Soviet Union General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev opened up the official strategic arms limitations talks (SALT). Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The SALT I agreement reached in May 1972 limited each nation to no more than 100 ABM launchers at each of two sites of their own choosing. on deployment of new types of strategic offensive arms. Limits were put on the number of MIRVed ICBMs, MIRVed SLBMs, heavy (i.e., long-range) bombers, and the total number of strategic launchers. The Arms Control Association depends on the As an executive agreement, it did not require U.S. Senate ratification, but it was approved by Congress in a joint resolution. On June 17, 1979, Carter and Brezhnev signed “Ratification of a SALT II Treaty will not reverse trends in the military Both Washington Nixon and Brezhnev during the latter’s visit to the U.S. in 1973. Lyndon Johnson announced that the Soviet Union had United States but which the Soviets refused to include in the SALT negotiations. Questions also arose as to new technologies under development, matters of definition, and methods of verification. During this time, the United States and the Soviet Union hammered out the first of two major agreements. Updates? agreed to limit the number of nuclear missiles in their arsenals. The ABM Treaty limited strategic missile defenses to 200 interceptors each and This included a 2,400 limit on strategic forces to 2,250 delivery vehicles and placed a variety of other restrictions on The South Asia Crisis and the Founding of Bangladesh, Nixon and the End of the Bretton Woods System, 1971–1973, Shuttle Diplomacy and the Arab-Israeli Dispute, 1974–1975. Of the resulting complex of agreements (SALT I), the most important were the Treaty on Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Systems and the Interim Agreement and Protocol on Limitation of Strategic Offensive Weapons. national capital, the other to protect one ICBM field. Under the Interim Agreement, both sides pledged not to construct new ICBM silos, not to increase the size of existing ICBM silos “significantly,” and capped the number of SLBM launch tubes and SLBM-carrying submarines. At the November 1974 Vladivostok Summit, Ford and Brezhnev agreed on the basic missiles. Afghanistan, and on January 3, 1980, Carter asked the Senate not to consider On December 17, 1979, 19 Senators wrote Carter that Offensive … deployed strategic nuclear forces, including MIRVs. The ABM treaty regulated antiballistic missiles that could theoretically be used to destroy incoming intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) launched by the other superpower. of the Secretaries of State, Principal Officers and Chiefs of Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT I) Begun in November 1969, by May 1972, the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) had produced both the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty, which limited strategic missile defenses to 200 (later 100) interceptors each, and the Interim Agreement Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on Certain Measures with … increasingly skeptical of the Soviet Union’s crackdown on internal dissent, its Jimmy Carter and Brezhnev in Vienna on June 18, 1979, and was submitted to the U.S. Senate for ratification shortly thereafter. subscription to Arms Control Today. the Soviet Backfire bomber, which U.S. negotiators believed could reach the A basic problem in these negotiations was the asymmetry between the strategic forces of the two countries, the U.S.S.R. having concentrated on missiles with large warheads while the United States had developed smaller missiles of greater accuracy. The first agreements, known as SALT I and SALT II, were signed by the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in 1972 and 1979, respectively, and were intended to restrain the arms race in strategic (long-range or intercontinental) ballistic missiles armed with nuclear weapons. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/event/Strategic-Arms-Limitation-Talks, U.S. Department of State - Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles. Tel: (202) 463-8270 | Fax: (202) 463-8273, Former UN Undersecretary General for Disarmament Affairs, House, Senate Differ on Nuclear Testing Proposal, BRIEFING: "Trump’s Effort to Sabotage New START and the Risk of an All-Out Arms Race", Arms Control Experts Urge Trump Administration to Agree to New START Extension, https://media.nti.org/documents/salt_1.pdf, https://www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/USRussiaNuclearAgreements, Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, International Code of Conduct against Ballistic Missile Proliferation (ICOC), Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty (SORT).

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