English edition Perotto (bottom left) with the P101 team — Photo: Laboratorio-Museo Tecnologicamente. Disponible en català, anglès, espanyol, portuguès, japonès, xinès, francès, alemany, italià, polonès, holandès, rus, àrab, hindi, suec, ucraïnesa, hongaresa, txec, hebreu, danès, finlandès, indonesi, noruec, romanès, turc, vietnamita, coreana, tailandesa, grega, búlgara, croata, eslovaca, lituània, filipina, letònia, estònia і eslovè. Més idiomes aviat. Veure més ». The machine was assembled at Olivetti's main Ivrea plant in November 1964, with a young architect, Mario Bellini, handling product design. Italy was hit particularly hard and early by the first wave when northern region of Lombardy beca... All rights reserved © Worldcrunch - in partnership with, An Italian Sunday Lunch Served In COVID's Second Wave, COVID-19 Spreads In South Of Italy: A New Fear For Second Wave. [4] After this moment he turned himself into a committed teacher and a prolific writer, writing with many essays (in Italian) about business management and future of computing. Tota la informació va ser extreta de Viquipèdia i està disponible sota la Llicència de Creative Commons Reconeixement i Compartir-Igual. "It turned out to be very simple, extremely intuitive, with just sixteen instructions that could be used to compile the mathematical formula of the operations to carry out. Perotto even participated in the live presentation, playing a kind of mathematical dice game in which man and machine were pitted against one another and challenged to reach a specific number without surpassing it. Google Play, Android i el logotip de Google Play són marques comercials de Google Inc. Llicència de Creative Commons Reconeixement i Compartir-Igual. 2 les relacions. The words were spoken by Pier Giorgio Perotto, the lead engineer on the Olivetti team that built the Programma 101, the world's first personal computer. But the skepticism soon gave way to great enthusiasm. Years before Steve Jobs and Bill Gates struck gold, the Italian typewriter manufacturer paved the way for the PC revolution, launching the Programma on October 14th, 1965 in New York City. Recounting the story of one of the most revolutionary inventions of all time fell to its top engineer, Perotto, who in 1995 published a memoir, The Invention of the Personal Computer: A Fascinating Untold Story. Together with Sergio Raimondi, Perotto launched FINSA Consulting in 1997, becoming the president since its foundation. [6][7][8] Programma 101 was officially launched at the 1964 New York World's Fair, attracting major interest from the public and the press. So you could write a sequence, a programming sequence, and load it in there, and the if you would — the Lunar Module high-gain antenna was not very smart, it didn't know where Earth was. Please check your email to confirm! The official presentation in Italy took place on April 7, 1966 and the Italian press also covered it prominently. The calculator, known until then internally as the "Perottina" in homage to its creator, was rebaptized: "Programma" recalled one of the exclusive characteristics of the product, while the number "101" was picked because it sounded good in English. A new profession was born, intermediary between man and machine. But the P101's public success would soon prove the marketing experts wrong. The difference in size between them and the machines then in use in offices — desktop typewriters and calculators — was still enormous. The public's first reaction was disbelief. The Olivetti Programma 101, also known as Perottina or P101, is one of the first "all in one" commercial desktop programmable calculators, although not the first. The New York Journal-American wrote: "We may see a computer in every office even before there are two cars in every garage.". • By Apollo 11 we had a desktop computer, sort of, kind of, called an Olivetti Programma 101. The machine was brought to New York to unveil along with Olivetti's other new products. The words were spoken by Pier Giorgio Perotto, the lead engineer on the Olivetti team that built the Programma 101, the world's first personal computer. for subscribing! Welcome to my DIY channel inventor 101, i will share new How To videos every week, so please subscribe to my channel so You don’t miss out. On June 10, 1967 Hewlett Packard paid $900,000 to the Italian company, recognizing it had violated the patent on the Programma 101 with its new model HP9100. A kind of BASIC programming language before its time," Perotto writes, referring to the Beginner's All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code invented at Dartmouth College, the first version of which was published in 1963. Fundamental applications, like calculating depreciation, mortgages, and payroll, were also easy to execute. It was tough to keep running for more than a few hours at a time. A machine not just able to perform complex calculations, but also to automatically manage the entire processing procedure, under the direct control of man.". Back then, the idea of having a computer on your work desk or in your children's room began as a dream, relentlessly pursued by a brilliant team of engineers working for one of the world's most successful companies in the typewriter and calculator sector. The most delicate part was the programming system: the team served up a completely new one. Working as General Director of projects and research at the Ivrea’s company, he played a major role in the transformation of this multinational company from a mechanical to electronics and systems company. He began his career at Fiat and later on moved to the machine company Olivetti. By 1963, the latest innovation in information technology was the super-advanced Programmed Data Processor-1, a so-called "mini-computer" released by the Digital Equipment Corporation in the United States. Olivetti ended up deciding to invest more in its typewriters and calculators than in computer electronics, which left an open path for competitors (old and new) to follow into what would become a massive global PC market. In 1991, he earned the Leonardo da Vinci Award for having developed a ground-breaking machine, the Programma 101, the world’s very first personal computer. Our expressly international daily newsletter. It was probably a foot and a half square, and about maybe eight inches tall. The proof was that none of Olivetti's competitors had put out anything like it.". The introduction of transistors (to replace the heat-generating vacuum tubes) gave birth to a second generation of electronic calculators that were more reliable and practical, but no smaller than their predecessors. One can't help smiling when reading Perotto's descriptions of what the marketing men had to say: "They said it was neither one of the big wall-sized electronic calculators, nor was it a desktop calculator, thus there wasn't a market for it. Graduated at the Turin Polytechnic, Perotto taught for many years at the same University and published several books and articles regarding strategy, business organization and technology. It would add, subtract, multiply, and divide, but it would remember a sequence of these things, and it would record that sequence on a magnetic card, a magnetic strip that was about a foot long and two inches wide. Uniopèdia és un mapa conceptual o xarxa semàntica organitzada com una enciclopèdia o diccionari. During November elections the following month, five Programma 101s were used by NBC television stations to calculate the results that would be transmitted to millions of viewers in the New York and New Jersey areas. Aquest és un mapa mental en línia gegant que serveix com a base per a diagrames de conceptes. For a Milanese writer, this is how his family lunch looks right now. És una eina, de recursos o de referència per a l'estudi, la investigació, l'educació, l'aprenentatge o l'ensenyament, que pot ser utilitzat per professors, educadors, alumnes o estudiants; Produced by Italian manufacturer Olivetti , based in Ivrea , Piedmont , and invented by the Italian engineer Pier Giorgio Perotto , the P101 has the main features of large computers of that period. In 1966 another two hundred P101s were produced, ninety percent of which were sold abroad, above all in the United States, at the price of two million lira in Italy and $3,200 in the U.S.. Production soon ramped up to hit 44,000 units. Often the engineer lost, and the presenter would exclaim, "The Programma 101 even manages to beat its own inventor!". P. G. Perotto (seated to the left) with the Programma 101 team Pier Giorgio Perotto (December 24, 1930 – January 23, 2002) was an Italian electrical engineer and inventor. In Perotto's words, "Man was expected to adapt to machine and not vice versa. There, computer-related work eventually had to be pursued in secret, once Olivetti sold off its electronics division to General Electric in 1964, keeping only the historic business of mechanical typewriters and calculators. In short, in those days it was all about developing memory and computing power, but no one seemed interested in making these calculators more user-friendly: no one was working on simplifying their use for the general public. Volume production started in 1965, selling about 44,000 units primarily in the US market. Perotto recounts how in the Milan lab they fashioned a tiny memory from a bit of iron wire, with data input and output handled by a little magnetic card, which could also serve as permanent memory or as a data storage unit — the ancestor of floppy disks and memory sticks. When the lab director, an engineer named Mario Tchou, died in a car accident in 1961, research operations were shifted from Pisa to the outskirts of Milan, about 170 miles to the north. The 12222 Perotto, a main belt asteroid, discovered in 1982 at the Osservatorio San Vittore in Bologna, is named after him.[5]. NASA bought ten models and used to plan the Apollo 11 landing on the moon. Working for the manufacturer Olivetti, he led a design team that built the Programma 101, one of the world’s first programmable calculators. It took up an entire wall, cost $100,000 and was used in a very few, specialized laboratories. It was a kind of supercalculator. In those days, installing an electronic calculator required a large air-conditioned room to dissipate the heat, and a round-the-clock presence of technical experts ready to intervene. Among the first to understand the P101's potential were the scientists at NASA, which bought 45 of the machines to chart the lunar maps and determine a flight path for the Apollo 11 mission, eventually putting a man on the moon four years later. But far from the main headquarters in Ivrea some 65 miles away, where the mechanical calculators were produced, Perotto, along with fellow researchers Giovanni de Sandre and Gastone Garziera, quietly continued their work in the Milan lab, designing their own "electronic calculator" for Olivetti — a veritable computer. Pier Giorgio Perotto (Turin, December 24, 1930 – Genoa, January 23, 2002) was an Italian electrical engineer and inventor. The keyboard and printer were the work of Franco Bretti, Olivetti's designer. per als papers, informes, projectes, idees, documents, enquestes, resums, o tesi. WORLDCRUNCH, TURIN — "I dreamed of a machine able to learn and then quietly execute, a machine that allows us to store instructions and data, but whose instructions were simple and intuitive; a machine that could be used by everyone, not just a handful of specialists. Between the end of 1962 and the beginning of 1964, it wasn't a solution that began to take shape in my mind so much as a dream: the dream of a machine which prioritized not just power and speed, but rather functional autonomy. Subscribe to our newsletter for more great reads. One of the revolutionary characteristics of the P101 was that it was mass produced: never before did a commercial product offer so much computing power concentrated in such a small, light body. Users of the Programma 101 could write their own custom program using the available instructions, or choose from several programs pre-recorded on the magnetic card: the length of the program wasn't limited by the card, since the programs could be used one after the other in sequence.

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