This basin is most important in fighting drought in the prairies and producing hydroelectricity, especially in Manitoba, northern Ontario and Quebec. The volcanic eruption of the Tseax Cone in 1775 was among Canada's worst natural disasters, killing an estimated 2,000 Nisga'a people and destroying their village in the Nass River valley of northern British Columbia. Major resource-based industries are fisheries, forestry, agriculture, petroleum products and mining. The size is roughly ~1,900,000 km2 (733,594.1 sq mi). Five per cent of Canada's land area is arable, none of which is for permanent crops. The Garibaldi Volcanic Belt was formed by subduction of the Juan de Fuca Plate beneath the North American Plate. The Outdoor Recreation and Conservation major emphasizes outdoor recreation and conservation issues. Across the Canadian Shield and in the north there are large iron, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, and uranium reserves. You can follow your own path in this major, choosing to emphasize areas likes parks and conservation management, outdoor recreation planning, or aboriginal co-management of parks and recreation. The Great Lakes and Lake Nipigon are also drained by the St. Lawrence. [62], The southernmost point is Middle Island, in Lake Erie, Ontario (41°41′N 82°40′W); the southernmost water point lies just south of the island, on the Ontario–Ohio border (41°40′35″N). Main crops in Canada include flax, oats, wheat, maize, barley, sugar beets and rye in the prairies; flax and maize in Western Ontario; Oats and potatoes in the Maritimes. Canada is home to the world's northernmost settlement, Canadian Forces Station Alert, on the northern tip of Ellesmere Island—latitude 82.5°N—which lies 817 kilometres (508 mi) from the North Pole. Canada's many rivers have afforded extensive development of hydroelectric power. Canada is currently warming at twice the global average, and this is effectively irreversible. This website will change as a result of the dissolution of Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada. It covers Manitoba, northern Ontario and Quebec, most of Saskatchewan, southern Alberta, southwestern Nunavut and the southern half of Baffin Island. [16] Extreme northern Canada can have snow for most of the year with a Polar climate. Details here. The Arctic, when defined as everything north of the tree line, covers most of Nunavut and the northernmost parts of Northwest Territories, Yukon, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, and Labrador. Despite this, 79.7 percent of Canada's population resides in urban areas, where population densities are increasing. [49], The Shield cannot support intensive agriculture, although there is subsistence agriculture and small dairy farms in many of the river valleys and around the abundant lakes, particularly in the southern regions. [62] The northernmost point of the Canadian mainland is Zenith Point on Boothia Peninsula, Nunavut 72°00′07″N 94°39′18″W / 72.002°N 94.655°W / 72.002; -94.655 (Zenith Point, Nunavut). This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html. The region is known for its extensive mineral reserves.[49]. [61], The northernmost point of land within the boundaries of Canada is Cape Columbia, Ellesmere Island, Nunavut 83°06′40″N 69°58′19″W / 83.111°N 69.972°W / 83.111; -69.972 (Cape Columbia, Nunavut). Cattle and sheep are raised in the valleys and plateaus of British Columbia. Extensively developed in British Columbia, Ontario, Quebec and Labrador, the many dams have long provided a clean, dependable source of energy. There are over 200 young volcanic centres that stretch northward from the Cascade Range to Yukon. NRESi facilitates collaborative projects that address complex issues involving ecological processes, social values, and earth science systems. [58] The Shield is also covered by vast boreal forests that support an important logging industry. Global climate change and the warming of the polar region will likely cause significant changes to the environment, including loss of the polar bear,[60] the exploration for resource then the extraction of these resources and an alternative transport route to the Panama Canal through the Northwest Passage. The ground in the Arctic is mostly composed of permafrost, making construction difficult and often hazardous, and agriculture virtually impossible. The French islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon lie off the southern coast of Newfoundland in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and have a maritime territorial enclave within Canada's exclusive economic zone.[57]. [42] It also runs through parts of southern Quebec.[42]. [14] Average winter and summer high temperatures across Canada range from Arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Canada is geologically active, having many earthquakes and potentially active volcanoes, notably the Mount Meager massif, Mount Garibaldi, the Mount Cayley massif, and the Mount Edziza volcanic complex. Canada has a vast geography that occupies much of the continent of North America, sharing land borders with the contiguous United States to the south and the U.S. state of Alaska to the northwest. [40] The Great Lakes feed the St. Lawrence River (in the southeast) where lowlands host much of Canada's population. On the south coast of British Columbia, Vancouver Island is separated from the mainland by the continuous Juan de Fuca, Georgia, and Johnstone Straits. This watershed has been little used for hydroelectricity, with the exception of the Mackenzie River, the longest river in Canada. Throughout the Shield there are many mining towns extracting these minerals. [45] Most of this forest has been cut down through agriculture and logging operations, but the remaining forests are for the most part heavily protected. Canadian Natural Resources (Fort St. John) Bag 6450 Fort St. John, BC V1J 4H9 Telephone: (250) 785-3085 Facsimile: (250) 785-7079 Canadian Natural Resources (Horizon Oil Sands Site) Bag 4025 Fort McMurray, AB T9H 3H5 Telephone: (403) 517-6700 Canadian Natural Resources Limited (Grande Prairie) 9705 - 97th Street Grande Prairie, AB T8V 8B9 Sudbury is an exception to the normal process of forming minerals in the Shield since there is significant evidence that the Sudbury Basin is an ancient meteorite impact crater. North, near the Alaskan border, Haida Gwaii lies across Hecate Strait from the North Coast region and to its north, across Dixon Entrance from Southeast Alaska. [7] Three of Canada's Arctic islands, Baffin Island, Victoria Island and Ellesmere Island, are among the ten largest in the world. Canada's abundance of natural resources is reflected in their continued importance in the economy of Canada. Despite this, some areas such as the Cypress Hills and the Alberta Badlands are quite hilly and the prairie provinces contain large areas of forest such as the Mid-Continental Canadian forests. Many of Canada's major ore deposits are associated with Precambrian volcanoes. Other than in the plateau regions of the Interior and its many river valleys, most of British Columbia is coniferous forest. There are significant dairy regions in central Nova Scotia, southern New Brunswick, the St. Lawrence Valley, northeastern Ontario, southwestern Ontario, the Red River valley of Manitoba and the valleys in the British Columbia Interior, on Vancouver Island and in the Lower Mainland. The Anahim Volcanic Belt was formed as a result of the North American Plate sliding westward over the Anahim hotspot. The southern parts of Quebec and Ontario, in the section of the Great Lakes (bordered entirely by Ontario on the Canadian side) and St. Lawrence basin (often called St. Lawrence Lowlands), is another particularly rich sedimentary plain. [62], The Canadian pole of inaccessibility is allegedly near Jackfish River, Alberta (59°2′N 112°49′W). While the largest part of the Canadian Arctic is composed of seemingly endless permafrost and tundra north of the tree line, it encompasses geological regions of varying types: the Arctic Cordillera (with the British Empire Range and the United States Range on Ellesmere Island) contains the northernmost mountain system in the world. Many of the volcanic belts bear ore deposits that are related to the volcanism. [citation needed]. [62] The easternmost point of the Canadian mainland is Elijah Point, Cape St. Charles, Labrador (52°13′N 55°37′W) 52°13′01″N 55°37′16″W / 52.217°N 55.621°W / 52.217; -55.621 (Elijah Point, Labrador). Because of extensive glaciation, Canada hosts more than two million lakes: of those that are entirely within Canada, more than 31,000 are between 3 and 100 square kilometres (1.2 and 38.6 sq mi) in area, while 563 are larger than 100 km2 (38.6 sq mi).

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