Casanova, Julián. [338] Julius Ruiz contends that, "Although the figures remain disputed, a minimum of 37,843 executions were carried out in the Republican zone, with a maximum of 150,000 executions (including 50,000 after the war) in Nationalist Spain". On the Nationalist side, the biggest losses came after the conflict, when they had to let Germany exploit the country's mining resources, so until the beginning of World War II they barely had the chance to make any profit. Occupied by Napoleon from 1808 to 1814, a massively destructive "war of independence" ensued, driven by an emergent Spanish nationalism.Spain was divided between the liberal ideas that were associated with revolutionary France and the reaction that followed as personified by the rule of Ferdinand VII. The political tensions that had driven the Carlist Wars remained unchecked, spilling over once again in the Spanish Civil War of 1936–9. 145,000 KIA, 134,000 executed, 630,000 due to sickness, cold etc.. maximum considered estimate, Griffin, Julia Ortiz, Griffin, William D. (2007).
These included non-combatants such as trade-unionists, Popular Front politicians, suspected Freemasons, Basque, Catalan, Andalusian, and Galician Nationalists, Republican intellectuals, relatives of known Republicans, and those suspected of voting for the Popular Front. [266] The German strategists successfully argued that the Nationalists needed to concentrate on vulnerable areas first. [233] France, through the favor of pro-communist air minister Pierre Cot also sent a group of trained fighter pilots and engineers to help the Republicans. The Republican government under Giral resigned on 4 September, unable to cope with the situation, and was replaced by a mostly Socialist organisation under Francisco Largo Caballero. In partnership with the French, Spanish columns secured the region. Two distinct factors led to the uprisings: a series of urban riots and a liberal movement within the middle classes and the military (led by General Joan Prim) concerned with the ultra-conservatism of the monarchy.

[note 55] Some scholars go even further and calculate the war's "population loss" or "demographic impact"; in this case they might include also (10) migration abroad: 160,000[note 56] to 730,000[note 57] and (11) decrease in birth rate: 500,000[note 58] to 570,000. [364] Many killings in the first few months were often done by vigilantes and civilian death squads, with the Nationalist leadership often condoning their actions or even assisting them. Virtually all Nationalist groups had strong Catholic convictions and supported the native Spanish clergy. [45] At this point once the constituent assembly had fullfilled its mandate of approving a new constitution, it should have arranged for regular parliamentary elections and adjourned. [281] Eight days before the new year, Franco threw massive forces into an invasion of Catalonia.

He was arrested and charged with complicity. [75] The country rapidly descended into anarchy.

[38] Spain joined an allied expedition in support of the French intervention in Mexico.

The revolution in the Republican zone at the outset of the war, in which 7,000 clergy and thousands of lay people were killed, deepened Catholic support for the Nationalists. University of Wisconsin Pres, 2011, pp.89–90, Casanova, Julián. [51] The left Republicans attempted to have Niceto Alcalá Zamora cancel the electoral results but did not succeed.

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