Although one of his country’s ablest leaders, he was unable to unite the warring provinces or to control the provincial caudillos (bosses). In the absence of both the President and the Vice President, the succession is regulated by the Law 20,972 ("Acephaly Law"). 88) entitles the Vice President to exercise the duties of the President, both in the case of a temporary absence and in the case of a permanent absence due to health reasons. Following military coups that overthrew the constitutional government were de facto military presidents in 1930–1932, 1943–1946, 1955–1958, 1966–1973 and 1976–1983 that brought in addition to the powers of the president also corresponding to Congress. The Tango 01 757 has been an object of political contention for the last decade (and a political campaign hot-topic during the 1999 Presidential election), with many politicians and media commentators[who?] His efforts to encourage immigration were unsuccessful, and his program of land reform eventually backfired, serving the interests of the landed oligarchy instead of the peasants. One of his notable achievements was the settling of border disputes with Chile, Bolivia, Brazil, and Paraguay. The Argentine Constitution (art. Sections 94 to 98 detail the electoral requirements. He is credited with overseeing the first free elections in Argentina through the Sáenz Peňa Law. By the May Revolution of 25 May 1810, the first Argentine autonomous government, known as the Primera Junta, was formed in Buenos Aires. He was also constantly embroiled with the powerful provincial caudillos, from whom he was unable to win acceptance for his centralist constitution of 1826. Convened the, Governor of Buenos Aires Province. Current President Alberto Fernández was sworn into office on 10 December 2019.[2]. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. If Perón did not structurally revolutionize Argentina, he did reshape the country, bringing needed benefits to industrial workers in the form of wage increases and fringe benefits. The Casa Rosada in Buenos Aires is the official workplace of the President and the Quinta de Olivos their official residence; he or she is entitled to use its staff and facilities. This established an executive figure, named Supreme Director, who was vested with presidential powers. The subsequent analysis of the validity of their actions led to the subsequent formulation of the doctrine of de facto governments. In 1930, 1943, 1955, 1962, 1966, and 1976, military coups deposed elected Presidents. This power was vested in one man when the position of Supreme Director was created by the 1813 National Assembly. Juan Perón helped engineer a military coup in 1943. These early attempts at self-government were succeeded by two Triumvirates and, although the first juntas had presidents, the King of Spain was still regarded as Head of State (as independence had not yet been declared), and the executive power was still not in the hands of a single person. First President born an Argentine citizen: First President elected in the twentieth century: First President elected in the twenty-first century: Living former presidents as of October 27, 2020: This page was last edited on 25 October 2020, at 09:26. Article 29 of the Constitution of 1853 had an article that considered the usurpation of public power as 'treason', but was referred to the de jure rulers. He resigned because of that republic. This constitution gave the Supreme Director the power of appointing Governors of the provinces. Roca started his military career at around the age of fifteen, volunteering to fight for the interior provinces of Buenos Aires. The origins of Argentina as a nation can be traced to 1776, when it was separated by the Spanish King from the existing Viceroyalty of Peru, creating the new Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. Argentina’s President is the nation’s commander-in-Chief, its Chief Executive, and its Head of both State and Government. Buenos Aires centralists) and federalists ensued in the following decades. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. 1946 - Juan Peron is elected president. The territories that would later become Argentina were first part of the Viceroyalty of Peru and then the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. The military regime of Gen. Alejandro Lanusse, which took power in March 1971, proclaimed its intention to restore constitutional democracy by the end of 1973 and allowed the reestablishment of political parties, including the Peronist party. Between 1820 and 1826, the United Provinces functioned as a loose alliance of autonomous provinces put together by pacts and treaties (see Treaty of Pilar, Treaty of Benegas, Quadrilateral Treaty), but lacking any actual central government until the 1825 Constitutional Congress. In the absence of both the President and the Vice President, the succession is regulated by the Law 20,972 ("Acephaly Law"). These Viceroys were seldom natives of the country. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Absolute nullity of the acts issued by the government installed by force; The authors shall be punished as traitors; These crimes are barred and the authors can not receive the benefit of the amnesty; Every citizen has the right to resistance against these acts of force. He also took part in the War of the Pacific as a colonel and was jailed in Chile for six months after the Battle of Arica. His popularity saw him elected as President first in 1880 and 1898. In this time, there was no central authority, and the closest to that was the Chairman of Foreign Relations, typically the Governor of the Province of Buenos Aires. The next year Perón was elected president. Unlike in most countries using a two-round system, presidential candidates in Argentina do not need to win a majority of the vote to win the presidency in a single round. The President of the Nation has the following powers: Section 90 of the Argentine Constitution establishes the requirements for becoming President. He assumed de facto, after an armed uprising, but his government lasted a few days, when the Board of Representatives appointed Manuel Dorrego. This stipulation was abolished in 1994. Fernández was born in Bu… The. One of the leaders is Juan Peron. First President born an Argentine citizen: First President elected in the twentieth century: First President elected in the twenty-first century: Living former presidents as of October 27, 2020: This page was last edited on 25 October 2020, at 09:26. So after serving for two consecutive periods, the president is not allowed to run for a third consecutive one, but may return for the two following elections and so on. Argentina has had many different types of heads of state as well as many different types of government. • President elected to the most terms: Juan Perón, three terms, elected consecutively in 1946 and 1951, and in 1973. First President: Bernardino Rivadavia, 1826. The aircraft is nicknamed Virgen de Luján after Argentina's patron saint. Interim. The Presidential Guard is responsible for the security of the entire presidential family. Those means included coups d'état, but also proscriptions of major political parties[6] and electoral fraud. Appointed successor of Alvear, could not take office because he was in command of the. The first elected President under the constitution was Justo José de Urquiza, but Buenos Aires seceded from the Argentine Confederation as the State of Buenos Aires. The first elected President under the constitution was Justo José de Urquiza, but Buenos Aires seceded from the Argentine Confederation as the State of Buenos Aires. He had been Governor Mayor from 9 to 11 February 1820 and was promoted interim as Governor until the appointment of Manuel de Sarratea. Isabel Perónserved 1974–1976 (1931-02-04) 4 February 1931 (age 89), Carlos Menemserved 1989–1999 (1930-07-02) 2 July 1930 (age 90), Adolfo Rodríguez Saáserved 2001 (1947-07-25) 25 July 1947 (age 73), Eduardo Duhaldeserved 2002–2003 (1941-10-05) 5 October 1941 (age 79), Cristina Fernández de Kirchnerserved 2007–2015 (1953-02-19) 19 February 1953 (age 67), Mauricio Macriserved 2015–2019 (1959-02-08) 8 February 1959 (age 61), Heads of state of South American countries, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Excelentísimo Señor (m) Excelentísima Señora (f), office of the Head of State has undergone many changes, the godfather of the seventh sons or the seventh daughters, "Asignación Salarial de las Autoridades del Poder Ejecutivo Nacional 2019", "Buenos Aires mayor favored in Argentina's presidential election", http://www.gva.be/cnt/dmf20180126_03324113/ze-noemen-ons-sneeuwwitje-en-de-zeven-dwergen, https://www.rtl.be/people/royautes/voici-la-nouvelle-filleule-de-la-reine-mathilde-photos--909068.aspx, http://www.perfil.com/politica/el-sueldo-de-mauricio-macri-aumento-un-30-0211-0067.phtml, Cristina voló a Seúl en jet privado, los ministros en vuelo de línea, Official site of the Argentine presidency, Apodos: la historia también tiene sentido del humor, Supreme directors of the United Provinces, United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=President_of_Argentina&oldid=985327568, Articles with Spanish-language sources (es), Articles containing Spanish-language text, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from May 2016, Articles containing Portuguese-language text, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from March 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.

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