[30] No space shuttle operations or landings ever occurred at the site.[31]. Runway edge lights are white except for the last 2,000 feet at each end of the runway, which are marked by amber lights.

The lights marking the limits of the runway length emit red light toward the runway and green light outward from the runway end, indicating the landing threshold to pilots.

A similar device is located at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Facility, and a third is located at Vandenberg Air Force Base.

Underlying the concrete paving, completed in late 1975, is a 6-inch-thick base of soil cement. On the northeast corner of the shuttle landing facility ramp area is the mate/demate device used to raise and lower the orbiter from its shuttle carrier aircraft during ferry operations. The prime landing site was the Shuttle Landing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, a purpose-built landing strip. The tanks are loaded with liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen, which subsequently are loaded into the orbiter's onboard power reactant storage and distribution tanks during the launch countdown. A paved runway at Edwards Air Force Base in California matches the Kennedy Space Center.runway in length and width and has an overrun of 5 miles that extends into a dry lake bed. [18] Had a TAL situation arisen during a launch from Vandenberg Air Force Base, Hao and Easter Islands in the Pacific Ocean would have been the TAL sites. In the hours before lift-off, the ships conduct visual and electronic sweeps of the predicted impact area to ensure it is clear. The process continues throughout vehicle checkout. In parallel with other pad activities, payload operations are performed in the RSS's payload changeout room. The LPS is divided into three major subsystems: the central data subsystem; the checkout, control and monitor subsystem; and the record and playback subsystem.

Automatic checkout from the firing rooms is accomplished using computer programs to monitor and record the prelaunch performance of all electrical and mechanical systems. Maneuvering is provided by a diesel-driven, 425-horsepower bow thruster. Vehicle checkout, countdown and launch are conducted with the support of the information stored in the CDS. The reels can hold two parachutes each.

The diver descends to a depth of approximately 110 feet and inserts a diver-operated plug in the nozzle of each casing.

The 4573-m (15,000-ft) length of the runway, excluding the 305-m (1,000-ft) overruns at each end, was necessary due to the speed, 303 mph, with which the orbiter lands. [19][20], RAF Fairford was the only Transoceanic Abort Landing site for NASA's Space Shuttle in the UK.

Amílcar Cabral International Airport on the island of Sal, Cape Verde, was another designated emergency landing site. A diesel-driven ground-power generator provides the orbiter (or other aircraft being towed) with 115-volt, 400-hertz, three-phase ac electrical power. This test supports an important function for the KSC launch team. New parachutes and hardware from manufacturers also are delivered to the Parachute Refurbishment Facility.

Also Gran Canaria Airport was used as a back-up site. White Sands Space Harbor at White Sands Test Facility in New Mexico was an emergency landing site for the Space Shuttle and was used as a backup when the runways at Edwards Air Force Base and the Kennedy Space Center were unavailable. The runway is grooved to prevent hydroplaning in wet weather. Another test verifies that the ET insulation will not debond following the cryo tanking. Space shuttle landings on the lake bed took place on Runways 05/23, 15/33 and 17/35. A 2,000-foot-long air line is attached from the DOP to an air compressor on the retrieval vessel. The test also provides support crew astronauts with crew module training.

Spacecraft that are integrated vertically in the space shuttle vehicle arrive at the launch pad ahead of the space shuttle and are temporarily stored in the PCR. At T minus nine minutes, following a 10-minute built-in hold, the KSC-developed ground launch sequencer takes over.

It contains a variable intensity control with five intensity settings.

Because the propellants are hypergolic, meaning they ignite on contact with one another, the oxidizer and fuel loading operations are conducted serially, not in parallel. The systems, known as ALSF-2, extend 3,000 feet beyond the runway ends and have five intensity settings. Traveling at a cruising speed of 10 to 12 knots, they reach the area in about 10 hours. The drogue parachute is wound around one of the large reels until the 5,000-pound frustum is approximately 100 feet from the ship.

The preferred finish line is the shuttle's home base at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida -- a 15,000-foot-long runway that is about as wide as the length of a football field. The information stored in these large-scale computers is immediately available to the smaller capacity computers of the checkout, control and monitor subsystem.

Space shuttle landings on the lake bed took place on Runways 05/23, 15/33 and 17/35. It serves as the main landing site for the Shuttle vehicle, or as a return from landing site when weather or other issues necessitated the use of Edwards Air Force Base (AFB) as the landing facility.

Both ends of the runway utilize identical approach lighting systems with sequenced flashing lights. The subsystem is used to process and launch the space shuttle vehicle. [7] Five ALT free flights and 54 operational Space Shuttle missions landed on Edwards Air Force Base runways.[8]. The MDD is 150 feet long, 93 feet wide and 105 feet high.

Parachute systems recovered concurrently with the SRB casings are delivered to the refurbishment facility on reels provided on the retrieval vessels for that purpose.

When the checkout program is complete, a signal indicates whether or not its performance has been satisfactory. Edwards Air Force Base in California was the site of the first space shuttle landing, and became a back-up site to the prime landing location, the Shuttle Landing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center. Mobile gantry cranes on the hoisting slip lift the booster onto a standard-gauge tracked dolly for safing and preliminary washing. "Endeavour, STS-126 crew lands on temp California runway", "Dryden Supported Many Aspects of Space Shuttle Missions", "NASA – Roster of Runways Ready to Bring a Shuttle Home", "John F. Kennedy Space Center – Space Shuttle Transoceanic Abort Landing (TAL) Sites", "Lonely Easter Island Will Be Emergency Shuttle Landing Site", "RAF Fairford on standby for Space Shuttle landing", "Space Shuttle Landing and Rollout Training at the VerticalMotion Simulator", NASA Names North Carolina Airport Emergency Landing Site for Shuttle, "TRANSPORT CANADA NASA SPACE SHUTTLE EMERGENCY LANDING SITE CONTINGENCY PLAN", Space Shuttle abort modes#Emergency landing sites, "The Space Shuttle and Vandenberg Air Force Base", The Bulletin - Google News Archive Search, "The Air Force Space Shuttle Program: A Brief History", "Lincoln Airport (LNK/KLNK) (Lincoln, Nebraska)", Shuttle Avionics Integration Laboratory (SAIL), Shuttle-Derived Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_Space_Shuttle_landing_sites&oldid=982615281, Articles with dead external links from January 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles lacking reliable references from February 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 9 October 2020, at 07:28. The sites included Lajes Air Base in Terceira island, Azores, Portugal, Zaragoza Air Base in Spain, Morón Air Base in Spain, and Istres Air Base in France. After final inspection and acceptance, the chutes are folded and placed in canisters for reuse. The parachutes for the solid rocket boosters are washed, dried, refurbished, assembled and stored in this facility.

The resource boundary extends from the outer perimeter of the SLF approximately 3 m (10 ft), which includes the runway property, its shoulders and overruns, and necessary components, such as runway lights, historically required for its functions. As the primary landing site for the orbiter, the SLF runway is of exceptional importance to the Space Shuttle program, and because it is less than 50 years in age, Criteria Consideration G applies. The Shuttle Landing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida has a single 15,000-foot (4,600 m) concrete runway, 15/33. During what is called the malfunction run, the test simulates real-time failures of vehicle and ground systems. All four firing rooms can support software development or hardware checkout. Final payload and payload bay closeouts are completed in the PCR, and the orbiter payload bay doors are closed for flight. The joint use civilian/military Lincoln Airport/Lincoln Air National Guard Base in Lincoln, Nebraska, USA was designated as an alternate landing site for its 12,900 ft (3,932 m) long main runway. RUNWAY 15 : RUNWAY 33: Latitude: 28-37.965150N: 28-35.821563N: Longitude: 080-42.363693W: 080-40.960818W: Elevation: 8.3 ft. 8.3 ft. Traffic pattern: left: left: Runway heading: 155 magnetic, 150 true: 335 magnetic, 330 true: Markings: precision, in good condition: precision, in good condition

These recordings can then be played back for posttest analysis when firing room personnel are troubleshooting space shuttle or LPS problems.

This page was last modified on 11 May 2011, at 17:55. Parachutes arriving from the retrieval operations are untangled, hung systematically on an overhead monorail, and transported to in-line washers and driers that wash and dry them automatically. The launch confidence test (formerly called the wet countdown demonstration test) validates tanking procedures and verifies ET hardware under simulated flight tanking conditions. Landings may be made on the runway from the northwest to the southeast (Runway 15) or from the southeast to the northwest (Runway 33), and microwave scan beam landing system ground stations are duplicated to permit an approach from either direction. The sequenced flashers are used during periods of reduced visibility and appear to pilots as a ball of light traveling toward the runway along the center of the approach lights, recurring twice each second. 78 space shuttle missions landed at Kennedy Space Center. The pad is cleared to the perimeter gate during the hazardous operation of loading nitrogen tetroxide oxidizer and monomethyl hydrazine fuel in the orbiter's OMS/RCS pods and forward RCS and hydrazine in the APUs and SRB HPUs. The slope of the runway from centerline to edge promotes rapid draining of any water from a heavy Florida rain to help combat hydroplaning. Payload-to-orbiter interface verifications are performed; and any required operations, such as spacecraft and upper stage battery charging, are conducted. The towing tractor is powered by a 191-kilowatt (256-horse power) diesel engine. The countdown is initiated with a call to stations from the Launch Control Center firing room. [29] The first landing at Vandenberg was planned for mission STS-62-A, which was scheduled for launch in July 1986, but canceled in the wake of the STS-51-L accident. Lightning protection is included. In addition, the thickness of the runway, 40 cm (16 in) at the center and 38 cm (15 in) at the sides, is necessary to accommodate the weight of the orbiter. Each vessel has a displacement of 1,052 tons. The KSC concrete runway is 16 inches (40.6 centimeters) thick in … Several runways are arrayed on the dry lakebed at Rogers Dry Lake, and there are also concrete runways.

No Space Shuttle landed on a dry lakebed runway after 1991.

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