The negotiations generally take place between the employees and the management. Collective bargaining plays a vital role in settling and preventing industrial disputes. The position of this settlement point depends on the relative bargaining strength and skills of the negotiator. It imparts stability to labour-management relations. 3. The agreement is mutually agreed upon between both the parties neither being biased nor favorable to either of them. Anything higher will be refused because he expects any strike intended to secure a higher demand will not last long enough to make any immediate concession worthwhile. (1) Compulsory adjudication/arbitration, introduced for the first time as a result of war-time exigencies and continued thereafter as a measure inevitable in a period of economic uncertainty and emergency, has given a great setback to the growth of trade unionism in the country. Such participation breeds the democratic process in the organisation. Prohibited Content 3. The accepted principle is to recognize the most representative union, but what criteria is used to decide it and by whom may differ from system to system. Every agreement constitutes recognition by one party or the other, and defines their relationship who speaks for whom, with what authority, for how long, and when or in what conditions. Prohibits strikes – There are certain issues between employees and employer that are not settled and employees go on strikes. Collective Bargaining: as a Conflict Resolution Strategy, 4 Bargaining Strategies Needed for Resolving Industrial Dispute. 6. It is usually updated on a yearly basis. Both the employer and the employees who best know their problems, participate in the negotiation process. It can flourish in a co-ordinal, friendly, peaceful and liberal environment. 9. Types 12. The resistance curve also shows that some maximum wage exists beyond which the unions will not contemplate action. The agreed provisions were often formulated in a general manner and the provision of labour code that set out the employers’ duties and employees’ right regarding social issue. Why is it called collective bargaining? The union participating in the collective bargaining process should be strong, democratic and enlightened. As soon as a compromise is reached, the terms of agreement are put into operation. The management rights provisions in the agreements do not contain management rights clauses on the ground that all rights not specifically bargained away belong to the management. In order to secure this level, they will stand out for a long while, but they will not be much concerned to raise wages above it. In this approach also the negotiators bargain each demand individually, but the agreement on any particular issue is tentative and dependent upon the completion and signing of the entire contract, unlike in the piecemeal approach. It tries to bring rules and regulations into the system which defines the authority confined to each party. Consult with the trade union on terms of employment especially those of women taking care of children and of young and disabled people, on improvements in working conditions and health and safety issue and on any other measure concerning considerable number of employees. It increases the strength of the workforce, thereby, increasing their bargaining capacity as a group. As practised at General Electric under Boulware, Boulewarism featured essentially a final offer made by the company at the beginning of negotiations. Under it, the economic issues like wages, salaries and bonus are discussed. Collective bargaining is perceived by both employers and employees as an important machinery to settle differences on the work-related issues. iii. v. A nation with harmony in the employer – employee relationship can go miles ahead on the development path. The collective bargaining is one of the devices to attain that objective through negotiations with the employers. The problems of modernization and productivity are to be viewed in a proper light in the context of industrial development on planned lines. 1. In a nut shell, CBA is a step forward for both the parties, leading to a smoother performance, better working conditions and a better relationship between the employees and the management. The union, in turn, has the right to protest and seek redress from a decision, usually with the explicit understanding that, if the management is found to be in error, under the grievance procedure, full restitution will be made to the union. 5. fringe benefits or perks; these are inescapable but at the same time predictable fixed labour costs. The representatives of employees echo the collective perception and views of the employees at the forum and the management lend their ears. The steps are given as under: The issues which are in general, resolved by way of collective bargaining include: wages, hours of work, working conditions, paid leaves, holidays, overtime pay, sick leave, shift length, occupational health and safety, and worker’s discipline and termination. Thus, collective bargaining can simplify be defined as an agreement collectively arrived at by the representatives of the employees and the employers. In good-faith bargaining proposals of one party are matched with counter proposals of the opposite party and both the parties make sincere and reasonable efforts to reach an agreement. It is a group process, wherein one group, representing the employers, and the other, representing the employees, sit together to negotiate terms of employment. Nature of demands influence the selection of negotiating team, the size and composition of the negotiating team, the period of negotiation and the period of agreement etc.

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