Further questions about Strughold's activities during World War II emerged in 2004 following an investigation conducted by the Historical Committee of the German Society of Air and Space Medicine. With the outbreak of World War II in 1939, Strughold's organization was absorbed into the Luftwaffe itself and was attached its medical service. He also began working on behalf of the US Army Air Force, becoming Chief Scientist of its Aeromedical Center, located on the campus of the former Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Medical Research. [2] Various Luftwaffe physicians had participated in the experiments and several of them had close ties to Strughold, both through the Institute for Aviation Medicine and the Luftwaffe Medical Service. The extent of his connection with Nazi atrocities, however, remains controversial. [4][5] In 1951 Strughold revolutionized existing notions concerning spaceflight when he co-authored the influential research paper Where Does Space Begin? In 1928 Strughold traveled to the United States on a year-long research fellowship from the Rockefeller Foundation. During this time Strughold's attention was increasingly drawn to the emerging science of aviation medicine. He conducted specialized studies into aviation medicine and human physiology at the University of Chicago and Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio. Campbell, Mark R.; Mohler, Stanley R.; Harsch, Viktor A.; Baisden, Denise (2007-07-01). During these proceedings, Strughold contributed several affidavits for the defense on behalf of his accused colleagues. Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunal linked Strughold to medical experiments in (27): 50-52. Strughold also worked as a research assistant to the renowned German-Austrian physiologist Dr. Maximilian von Frey. During his work on behalf of the Air Force and NASA, Strughold was the subject of three separate US government investigations into his suspected involvement in war crimes committed under the Nazis. by KENNETH M. EARLE, M.D. Atmospheric space equivalence. from the University of Münster and completed his habilitation (Dr. in which he proposed that space was present in small gradations that grew as altitude levels increased, rather than existing in remote regions of the atmosphere. at the Julius Maximilian University of Würzburg in 1927. A 1958 investigation by the Justice Department fully exonerated Strughold, while a second inquiry launched by the Immigration and Naturalization Service in 1974 was later abandoned due to lack of evidence. In October 1945 Strughold returned to academia, becoming director of the Physiological Institute at Heidelberg University. While, unlike the Dachau experiments, all the test subjects survived the research process, this revelation led the Society of Air and Space Medicine to abolish a major award bearing Strughold’s name. His portrait, however, still hangs there. (July 2007), "Hubertus Strughold: The 'Father of Space Medicine'", Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine; Vol. (1954). Strughold, Hubertus. These experiments included physiological tests during which camp inmates were immersed in freezing water, placed in air pressure chambers and made to endure invasive surgical procedures without anesthetic. Also, several of the former Luftwaffe physicians associated with Strughold and the Institute for Aviation Medicine (among them Strughold's former research assistant Hermann Becker-Freyseng) were convicted of crimes against humanity in connection with the Dachau experiments at the 1947 Nuremberg Doctor's Trial. Hubertus Strughold Used Dachau Concentration Camp Inmates as Human Guinea Pigs, and Experimented on Children From a Mental Asylum Doctor Hubertus Strughold (1898 – 1986) was a prominent German medical researcher, who served as the Luftwaffe’s chief aeromedical researcher from 1935 until the end of WW2. While at NASA, Strughold played a central role in designing the pressure suit and onboard life support systems used by both the and Apollo astronauts. Many of the inmates forced to participate died as a result. Rethra Verlag: Norderstedt, Germany, 235. In 1947 Strughold was brought to the United States, along with many other highly valuable German scientists, as part of Operation Paperclip. Gen. Eduard C. Burchard, GAF, MC, 2013 Award retired by the Space Medicine Association. at the Julius Maximilian University of Würzburg in 1927. Musgrave, S (2000). was named after him in 1977, but later renamed because documents from the He was never subsequently charged with any wrongdoing by the Allies. Strughold himself was also commissioned as an officer in the German air force, eventually rising to the rank of Colonel (Oberst). He was never subsequently charged with any wrongdoing by the Allies. SPACE habil.) Dr. Hubertus Strughold (1898–1986) is known as the “Father of Space Medicine.” He first coined the term “space medicine” in 1948 and was the first and only Professor of Space Medicine at the U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine. (27): 50-52. The move was met with opposition from defenders of Strughold, citing his massive contributions to the American space program and the lack of any formal proof of his direct involvement in war crimes.[6]. He would later serve as a professor of physiology at Friedrich Wilhelm University in Berlin. 78, No. Also, several of the former Luftwaffe physicians associated with Strughold and the Institute for Aviation Medicine (among them Strughold's former research assistant Hermann Becker-Freyseng) were convicted of crimes against humanity in connection with the Dachau experiments at the 1947 Nuremberg Doctor's Trial. Strughold, H. (1956). 7; pp 716–9. During his work on behalf of the Air Force and NASA, Strughold was the subject of three separate US government investigations into his suspected involvement in war crimes committed under the Nazis. Randolph's Aeromedical Library These revelations did significant damage to Strughold's reputation and resulted in the revocation of various honors that had been bestowed upon him over the course of his career. pp. [1] Following his death, Strughold's activities under the Nazis came under greater scrutiny and allegations surrounding his involvement in Nazi-era human experimentation greatly diminished his reputation. He also directed the specialized training of the flight surgeons and medical staff of the Apollo program in advance of the planned . Campbell, M., and Harsch, V. (2013) Hubertus Strughold: Life and Work in the Fields of Space Medicine. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Wiki is a FANDOM Lifestyle Community. 874. Strughold himself was also commissioned as an officer in the German air force, eventually rising to the rank of Colonel (Oberst). Hubertus Strughold (June 15, 1898 – September 25, 1986) was a German-born physiologist and prominent medical researcher. He also began working on behalf of the US Army Air Force, becoming chief scientist of its Aeromedical Center, located on the campus of the former Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Medical Research. [8] The award was presented every year from 1963 through 2012 to a Space Medicine Branch member for outstanding contributions in applications and research in the field of space-related medical research. in 1922. He was a co-founder of the Space Strughold retired from his position at NASA in 1968. Evidence of experimentation on Dachau inmates and epileptic children. Strughold was born in the town of Westtünnen-im-Hamm in the Prussian province of Westphalia on 15 June 1898. (1954). med.) Every year since 1963, the Space Medicine Association has given out the Hubertus Strughold Award to a top scientist or clinician for outstanding work in aviation medicine. Beginning in 1935 he served as chief of aeromedical research for the Luftwaffe, holding this position throughout World War II. He would also visit the medical laboratories at Harvard, Columbia and the Mayo Clinic. Rethra Verlag: Norderstedt, Germany, 235. The US Air Force experimental sealed cabin. Many of the inmates forced to participate died as a result. from the University of Münster and completed his habilitation (Dr. Following his death, Strughold's alleged connection to the Dachau experiments became more widely known following the release of US Army Intelligence documents from 1945 that listed him among those being sought as war criminals by US authorities. Though Strughold was ostensibly a civilian researcher, the majority of the studies and projects his Institute undertook were commissioned and financed by the German armed forces (principally the Luftwaffe) as part of the ongoing German re-armament. He studied medicine and natural science at the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich and the Georg August University of Göttingen. Medicine at Brooks Air Force Base, Texas). the United States at the end of World War II as part of Operation 2002. pp. He remained at Würzburg and pursued a career as a professor of physiology. Further action by the ADL also led to Strughold’s removal from the International Space Hall of Fame in Alamogordo, New Mexico in May 2006. In April 1935 the government of Nazi Germany appointed Strughold to serve as the director of the Berlin-based Research Institute for Aviation Medicine, a medical think tank that operated under the auspices of Hermann Göring's Ministry of Aviation. AND AEROSPACE MEDICINE. The following year he was appointed as the first and only Professor of Space Medicine at the US Air Force's newly established School of Aviation Medicine (SAM), one of the first institutions dedicated to conducting research on the so-called "human factors" associated with manned spaceflight. With the outbreak of World War II in 1939, Strughold's organization was absorbed into the Luftwaffe itself as part of its Medical Service. In October 1942, Strughold and Hippke attended a medical conference in Nuremberg at which SS physician Sigmund Rascher delivered a presentation outlining various medical experiments he had conducted, in conjunction with the Luftwaffe, in which prisoners from the Dachau concentration camp were used as human test subjects. In 1962 the Award was established in honor of Dr. Hubertus Strughold, also known as "The Father of Space Medicine". [1] Following his death, Strughold's activities in Germany during World War II came under greater scrutiny and allegations surrounding his involvement in Nazi-era human experimentation greatly diminished his reputation. [4][5] Strughold coined the term "space medicine" to describe this area of study in 1948. et phil.) PRESENTATION OF AN AWARD FOR MERITORIOUS CONTRIBUTIONS TO NEUROPATHOLOGY to RICHARD LINDENBERG, M.D. Earl H. Wood, M.D., Ph.D". These revelations did significant damage to Strughold’s reputation and resulted in the revocation of various honors that had been bestowed upon him over the course of his career. [3] It was while at Randolph Field that Strughold began conducting some of the first research into the potential medical challenges posed by space travel, in conjunction with fellow "Paperclip Scientist" Dr. Heinz Haber.

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