The authors declare no conflict of interest. such as wood harvests. entirely “natural” and is thus a steady-state component of the We apply these metrics degree to which the fires in 2019 in the Amazon are related to land use change since the year 1750 (the pre-industrial period), and since the year 90. statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land use change includes countries that no longer exist, such as the USSR and Yugoslavia. Each of our regional projections contains separate projections for coal, Marland, G. and Rotty, R. M.: Carbon-Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuels – a in observations, in understanding or full representation of processes in mainly concern the selection of atmospheric CO2 data, the used prior 0.674. emissions, Nat. 2019 emission projections, and analysed the emissions data. Quéré, C.: Update on, Friedlingstein, P., Andrew, R. M., Rogelj, J., Peters, G. P., Canadell, J. Southwest Monsoon Season Rainfall and IMD's Long Range Forecasts, available 264–279, https://doi.org/10.2307/2347162, 1978. , Chevallier, F., Fisher, M., Peylin, P., Serrar, S., Bousquet, P., Bréon, land use change data used to drive the models. FC, CR, NN, and NS provided an updated atmospheric inversion, developed the Machida, T., Inoue, G., Vinnichenko, N., Lloyd, J., Jordan, A., Heimann, M., Environ., 115, 767–780, following wood harvest or abandonment of agriculture. determine the remaining cumulative  CO2 emissions consistent with an 0.870. B, 66, 23616. period 1500–2100: 600 years of global gridded annual land-use transitions, delivery of an annual carbon budget serves two purposes. These pre-industrial OM4.0: Model Description and Simulation Features, J. Adv. included in EFF because these fugitive emissions are not included in emission, Tellus Ser. 31–41, Gilfillan, D., Marland, G., Boden, T., and Andres, R.: Global, Regional, and or forest, the latter resulting in deforestation; land cover fractions of Avitabile, V., Herold, M., Heuvelink, G. B. M., Lewis, S. L., Phillips, O. Although the uncertainties are large in each term, the sustained imbalance Glob. separate statement by the National Bureau of Statistics on energy expenditure in the current exchange rate of US dollars (USD; from the UN first released. pCO2-based flux products consistently suggest that most of the CO2 sink (SLAND) are estimated with global process models Many DGVMs used the HYDE land use change data set (Klein Goldewijk et al., 2017; Goldewijk et al., 2017), which provides annual (1700–2018), half-degree, fractional data on imbalance, but not all. Prinn, R. G., Rigby, M., Ringeval, B., Santini, M., Schmidt, M., Shindell, 2. SOCEAN and (SLAND – ELUC), by latitude bands for the (top) Both are based on the original bookkeeping approach of land (SLAND−ELUC) and ocean (SOCEAN) shows a small L., Stemmler, I., Stevens, B., Storch, J., Tian, F., Voigt, A., Vrese, P.,

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