Explore the relationships between ideas about the structure of the Earth in the Concept Development Maps – Changes in the Earth’s Surface and Plate Tectonics. Earth was not around at the beginning of the universe. The story of Earth is one of the most fascinating and complex scientific stories around, with plenty of evidence and understanding to back it up. Some five billion years ago, in a perfectly ordinary place in the galaxy, something happened. Students can then show their posters to the class and discuss common aspects of them. The formation of Earth: The Earth formed over ~50 Myr via planetesimal accretion. After a preliminary discussion of the size of the Earth and what could be inside, ask students in small groups to draw on large sheets of paper a circle to represent a cross-section through the Earth. The Earth has layers. It's a world that is constantly changing, with regions where continents are pulling apart and other places where new land is being formed. Temperature: 5,000°C – 6,000°C State: Solid Composition: iron and nickel. See websites listed in Evidence from earthquakes, volcanoes and igneous rocks (which sometimes contain fragments of what is thought to be upper mantle material) suggest that the Earth is made up of four principal layers. The History of the Earth Earth’s formation and bombardment Formation of Moon and late heavy bombardment Continental Motion The Early Earth’s Atmosphere Life’s interaction with the Atmosphere What is important to life? A network of 14 major and a number of minor tectonic plates make up this layer. Compared to the total diameter of the Earth, mountains and seas are like the fuzzy skin of a peach. tectonic plates is a very demanding one as it creates a substantial mismatch with what we are able to see. This tool is a guide and may not be accurate. His initial proposal was ridiculed by most of the Earth science community for over 50 years; it was not until the cause of this continental movement was established in the 1960s that the theory became widely accepted. It treats of the nature and formation of the rocks which form the solid framework of the globe ; of the agents which produce changes in these rocks ; and of the history of the past life, whose remains (fossils) are buried in them. The crust is made up of tectonic plates, which are in constant motion. The Earth differentiation: Early Earth heats up due to radio-active decay, compression, and impacts. The dense Inner Core. Planetary scientists call this settling process differentiation. %PDF-1.5 %���� An egg has one inner section (yolk), whereas the Earth has a solid inner core and liquid outer core. It also comes from analyses of very large bodies of geochemical data, astronomical studies of planet-forming regions around other stars, and decades of serious discussion among astronomers, geologists, planetary scientists, chemists, and biologists. The flesh of a Peach does not have the fluidity (plasticity) of the mantle. Understanding our world's formation process not only gives new insight into its structure and formation, but it also opens new windows of insight into the creation of planets around other stars. The first 4 billion years of Earth’s history, from its formation to the first appearance of shelly fossils 545 million years ago, is known as the Precambrian (see Figure 1). Concept Development Maps – Changes in the Earth’s Surface and Plate Tectonics. Students could make a list of the many different observed phenomena that are explained by the movement of continents. During that time, the components of the disk began to freeze out into small dust-sized grains. While the eons that followed were full of strange stories and far-reaching changes, by the time the first life did appear, Earth's structure was well-formed and only its primordial atmosphere was being changed by the onset of life. The lithosphere lithosphere is solid and rigid. The posters can be kept for later reflection on how the student’s ideas may change after investigating this topic. volcanoes become active and erupt when they become too full of lava. During that time, simple, marine-dwelling, soft-bodied organisms dominated life. Graphic Organisers). As they did, the energy of each collision was tremendous. Made mainly of iron, the temperature of the ball is 5,000°C to 6,000°C – that’s up to 6,000 times hotter than our atmosphere and scorching enough to make metal melt! Around some of those stars, the heavier elements formed planets. It is about 6,400 km from the Earth’s surface to its centre. The iron "drops" follow gravity and accumulate towards the core. It all started out with only two elements: hydrogen and helium, and a small trace of lithium. For convenience, the distances below are expressed as a percentage of this figure, as well as given directly. Earth scientists have proposed that the Earth is constructed of layers. The formation and evolution of planet Earth is a scientific detective story that has taken astronomers and planetary scientists a lot of research to figure out. This collapse may have been triggered by a shockwave from a nearby supernova or star explosion. Understanding what lies beneath the surface of the Earth is particularly difficult for students because it is beyond their direct observational experience. H��W˒�6��W` VEߤ쩩�;]v&eOʒ3ΔM�%�)BC��;�����9 %Jݎ�p��E�q��W������t�HX�wW�?+X��"�0c�,��"��bs��/J��_��[��VG�� r�q��Xv�ڏ������dFF>p�M¢(��_�t������!�a����e�e~����g̋R?�����ǃ�|g^����a�`��+��Ƭ�/���pk����{a�x��v[�7�LR?�������EE�o�\D�G|θ�g�G\��OtT�`�1ߩ[�ދ����ʽ�s�k-ދ�6w��[��y�0�?�\��P2{��C��b�\��a|X��i��P� �C��̘�w�R6���D�ɶ]���TM)�]����m�����ھ��V�S��Xz��K���U}Ǻu�m�R���;-~�F �����U��XW�Qs��o��*����T]�}լ�M�d� �Ey,�L��*��7��貂��ی���K 0�Ғ>�B. To access the interactive learning object below, teachers must login to FUSE and search by Learning Resource ID: For information about the Earth’s layers and level appropriate evidence supporting their existence see the following sites: We respectfully acknowledge the Traditional Owners of country throughout Victoria and pay respect to the ongoing living cultures of First Peoples. In fact, astronomers can see just this sort of thing happening elsewhere in the universe. Later, students who have researched the Earth's layers can mark in, the following features using the same scale: Students could investigate how well sound waves travel through a metal fence rail compared to rails made from other materials. Earth’s structure Introduction This topic explores the key concepts of Earth’s structure as they relate to: • the structure of Earth • movement of Earth’s crust • earthquakes • tsunamis • volcanoes • rocks. Material from the core never reaches the surface. FUSE Teacher Resources page. It is solid and made of almost pure iron.The molten rock that is part of volcanic eruptions flows from the lower crust and upper part of the mantle. Volcanoes and earthquakes are largely the consequence of plate movement and often occur at the edges of these plates. The Earth's magnetic field is a result of convection currents in this outer iron core. The planet got most of it back after a period of time, but some of it collected into a second planetesimal circling Earth. Earthquakes and volcanoes are most likely to occur at plate boundaries. Although the information at the following website is not appropriate for students at this level, it is included here as a teacher resource because it provides good explanations of the ways shock waves from earthquakes are used by Earth scientists to reveal information about the size and properties of the principal Earth layers. Around it swirled a disk of the same material, which grew hotter and hotter as gravity and motion compressed the dust and rocks of the cloud together. The stage was set for the formation and spread of tiny microbes across the planet. A similar activity along with others that could be adapted for this level are described at the website of Purdue University, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences site: Students could be supported to develop analogies for the structure of the Earth and then discuss the strengths and (importantly) the limitations of each of these. The Earth’s structure Introduction This topic explores the key concepts of Earth’s structure as they relate to: • the structure of Earth • movement of Earth’s crust • earthquakes • tsunamis • volcanoes • rocks. The Sun was born. As they aged, those stars created heavier elements in their cores, elements such as oxygen, silicon, iron, and others. Heat and very high pressures mean that the rocks in this top part of the mantle can flow slowly, but, like the ice in glaciers, it would be incorrect to say they are liquid. 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How we made $200K with 4M downloads.