deficit with China by selling Indian opium into the Chinese market, Moreover, a high level of nationalism was at the time being experienced across Europe, particularly as a result of Napoleon's Empire. Age of Revolutions • His reign began marred by the Decembrist revolt of 1825 among the soldiers, some of whom supported his other brother. 1945 to Present unequal treaties between China and European imperial powers. They began by giving colours, freely brushed, primacy over line, drawing inspiration from the work of painters such as Eugène Delacroix. The war resulted in the establishment of Japan as a major world power. Beyond China, European imperialism in Asia remained strong. 14. These spheres of influence comprised territories, This understanding was to lead to inter-state co-operation across the region, the most notable example being the Zollverein, the customs union that encompassed most of northern Germany by the early 1830s. By this time, Britain's colonial territories spanned the world, and during the late 1800s Britain expanded their territorial possessions to include Egypt, Kenya, and South Africa. 08.

Such revolts were frequently small in scale, however, and were easily dealt with by the rulers of Italy. Previously, still lifes and portraits as well as landscapes had usually been painted indoors. When the value of these new technologies became apparent, the states of Europe began to take control of large swathes of territory in Africa and Asia, heralding in a new era of imperialism. New leisure activities became popular, including hunting, travelling, and bicycling, as well as team sports, including polo, cricket, and soccer.

Under Stolypin's lead, revolutionaries and dissenters were brutally punished in what became known as "Stolypin Neckties." Thus, Nicholas ruled through police action and use of the army.

Renaissance • century, Indo-British economic ties were so entrenched in a neo-mercantile system who generally looked the other way when profit was the goal. The dominating social class was the middle class, or bourgeoisie. Cambridge: Polity Press. The period between 1870 and 1914 saw a Europe that was considerably more stable than that of previous decades.

This, of course, was utilized by some of the European governments as moral justification for their imperialistic foreign policies as British supremacy and influence increased. Background •

This theory of ‘social imperialism’ has been used to explain why Germany’s imperial colonies expanded so drastically under Bismarck, who was opposed to German imperialism. This variety of factors, both nationalistic and economic, were exploited by the conservative King of Prussia, William I, and his chief minister, Otto von Bismarck. [9] Imperial competition between nations went beyond economics, however, as colonies were also seen as strategic military possessions and a subject of national pride. This is further validated when we compare the evolution of other Protestant dominated nations and their central social strength around the same values, for instance Holland and Germany. It had an autocratic tsar with no social contract, and serfdom still existed in Russia. to develop, as the successful capitalist states in east Asia seem

By the end of the century, Britain was heavily investing in territories outside of Europe, and a third of all British exports went somewhere in the British Empire. On May 21, Adolph Theirs, leader of the French provisional government, sent in troops to "restore order" in Paris.

territorial and commercial advantages in their respective spheres The dominance of foreign powers was brought to an end by the Napoleonic wars. Cavour was the Prime Minister of Piedmont-Sardinia and served King Victor Emmanuel II. In addition, as a result of European industrialization, nations had an increased need for various resources, such as cotton, rubber, and fuel.

He wrote that in the world, the creatures who are the "most fit" are most likely to survive and thus pass on their genes. Concerned with the sharp rise in opium addiction and the European imperialism had major effects on the peoples conquered and the Europeans themselves. War, objected to the prevalence of spheres of influence. exclusive rights to profits and investment. The domains and sovereignty of European nations expanded far beyond the continent of Europe itself, thus insuring that a small dispute in the Balkans would escalate to a global scale at the advent of World War I. in Beijing. The


Bismarck explained his acceptance of German imperialism according to financial reasons, believing that Germany’s colonizing efforts would help increase German exports. This was also the time the Industrial Revolution started to take shape in Great Britain. The Impressionist Camille Pissarro experimented with Neo-Impressionist ideas between the mid 1880s and the early 1890s. The US advocated and pushed through a new Open Door Policy, an The Crimean War marked the first time rail-roads were used tactically to transport troops and to transport goods to troops over vast distances.

Paris responded by forming its own government, a 40 member council or "commune" with its own national guard. Absolutism •

of the Chinese, contributed to a virulent anti-imperial sentiment.

its military victories and naval superiority to ensure uninterrupted This view guided its foreign policy. So by 1871, political stability of European nations resulted in renewed interest in imperialist endeavours, expansionism and power.

The newly-unified Germany saw expansion as a sign of greatness and France and other European nations also remained involved in imperialist affairs due to the pressured of foreign competition. Japan, envious of European expansion, became an imperial power itself and took away the Korean peninsula and the island of Taiwan.

most importantly, the Suez Canal. Social Darwinism espoused the idea that consensual economic interaction and property rights enabled societies to progress by allowing productive members of society to flourish and unproductive members to be punished by poverty. By the end of the eighteenth The second, the anarchists, led by Mikhail Bakunin, set out to destroy any government, even a reformist tsar like Alexander II. Throughout the nineteenth Century, Britain’s trade deficit increased as more products were imported and less were exported, and so international competition became ever more important when other nations began to colonize. Soviets formed the councils of workers in St. Petersburg and Moscow. He built up the strength of Piedmont-Sardinia, establishing a strong army, a healthy economy, and political freedoms, such as freedom of the press. Rise.

the end of the century, after five wars between China and various Also, Darwin's theory led to the rise of the concept of social Darwinism, or "survival of the fittest."

France controlled Algeria, and Italy controlled Somalia. Colonization was seen as a waste of resources by those on the Right and the Left. Painting realistic scenes of modern life, they emphasized vivid overall effects rather than details. By 1837 we see the start of the Victorian era, Pax Britannica and the heights of Imperialism. Conflict in Africa: the Boer War (1895-1902), The "Affairs" of the French Third Republic (1871-1914), The Balance of Power in Europe (1871-1914), Crises in the Balkans and the Road to Destruction (1874-1912). Peasant revolutionaries resented the redemption fees, and two new groups arose in Russia. In 1870, Prince Leopold Hohenzollern was asked to take the crown in Spain, and France demanded that the Prussians agree that no Hohenzollern ever take the Spanish throne in the so-called "Ems Dispatch." Reacting immediately, an international expeditionary

On what has become known as "Bloody Sunday," June 22, 1905, a peaceful march of thousands of St. Petersburg workers to the Winter Palace by Father Gapon took place. The war marked the first major victory of a non-western power over a western power. These pressures led Pope Pius IX to put forth the Doctrine of Papal Infallibility. This broad feeling was encouraged by the works of eighteenth century German writers and philosophers, such as Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and particularly Johann Gottfried von Herder. Canton. Pope Leo XIII addressed the great social issues of the day, condemning Socialism but urging improvements in labor conditions. they could only be judged and tried by officials of their own nation However, at the same time, there were falling birth rates as a result of massive social changes in Europe. the backward Chinese forces, the British expeditionary force blockaded Younger painters during the 1890s and early 20th century worked in geographically disparate regions and in various stylistic categories, such as Fauvism and Cubism. However, the unification of Germany was not solely due to nationalism.

Due to government's expanding role in education, organized religion also came under attack from the secular state. 02. Alexander II came to power, using the defeat in the Crimean War as the major impetus to reform. France took direct control over the provinces

Religious War • Another interpretation of nineteenth-century imperialism is that governments used colonization and overseas adventures as a distraction from domestic conflict. World War I • Belgium had taken the Congo in central Africa. The imperial expansion since about 1870 was not a European invention but its chronological and spatial dimension was as unique as the variety of colonial methods of rule.

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