Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Though Istanbul may have been inhabited as early as 3000 BCE, it was not a city until … In 330 A.D., Constantine established the city that would make its mark in the ancient world as Constantinople, but also would become known by other names, including the Queen of Cities, Istinpolin, Stamboul and Istanbul.

See. Warfare and fires have left standing only a few structures that were built earlier than the 19th century. In 1203 the armies of the Fourth Crusade, deflected from their objective in the Holy Land, appeared before Constantinople—ostensibly to restore the legitimate Byzantine emperor, Isaac II. Sir Steven Runciman, historian of the Crusades, wrote that the sack of Constantinople is "unparalleled in history". The obelisk erected by Theodosius in the Hippodrome of Constantinople is still visible in Sultanahmet Square, and a section of the Valens Aqueduct, constructed in the late 4th century, stands relatively intact at the western edge of the Fatih district. Washington Government Printing Office, 1913. [10] As a result of Istanbul's exponential growth in the 20th century, a significant portion of the city is composed of gecekondus (literally "built overnight"), referring to illegally constructed squatter buildings. This was reflected in Constantinople by the construction of the Blachernae palace, the creation of brilliant new works of art, and general prosperity at this time: an increase in trade, made possible by the growth of the Italian city-states, may have helped the growth of the economy. In 1452 another Ottoman sultan, Mehmed II, proceeded to blockade the Bosporus by the erection of a strong fortress at its narrowest point; this fortress, called Rumelihisarı, still forms one of the principal landmarks of the straits. The University of Constantinople was founded in the fifth century and contained artistic and literary treasures before it was sacked in 1204 and 1453,[8] including its vast Imperial Library which contained the remnants of the Library of Alexandria and had 100,000 volumes. Istanbul-based Star TV was the first private television network to be established following the end of the TRT monopoly; Star TV and Show TV (also based in Istanbul) remain highly popular throughout the country, airing Turkish and American series. [217][218] Haydarpaşa, at the southeastern end of the Bosphorus, was Istanbul's largest port until the early 2000s. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. [52], In 980, the emperor Basil II received an unusual gift from Prince Vladimir of Kyiv: 6,000 Varangian warriors, which Basil formed into a new bodyguard known as the Varangian Guard.

According to Russian 14th-century traveler Stephen of Novgorod: "As for Hagia Sophia, the human mind can neither tell it nor make description of it.". It was built at the behest of Sultan Bayezid II, who sought to bring students with diverse backgrounds together as a means of strengthening his growing empire. "Istanbul." Ibn Batutta who traveled to the city in 1325 wrote of the bazaars "Astanbul" in which the "majority of the artisans and salespeople in them are women".[87]. Ancient History Encyclopedia. The final assault was made on May 29, and, in spite of the desperate resistance of the inhabitants aided by the Genoese, the city fell. Constantinople: City of the World’s Desire 1453-1924. [117][121] The highest and lowest temperatures ever recorded in the city center on the Marmara coast are 40.5 °C (105 °F) and −16.1 °C (3 °F). The most notable names besides the modern Turkish name are Byzantium, Constantinople, and Stamboul. The Treaty of Lausanne was signed on 24 July 1923, and the occupation of Constantinople ended with the departure of the last forces of the Allies from the city on 4 October 1923. This fault zone, which runs from northern Anatolia to the Sea of Marmara, has been responsible for several deadly earthquakes throughout the city's history. The population pressure from within, and the barbarian threat from without, prompted the building of walls farther inland at the hilt of the peninsula. Portions of the walls of Stamboul remain.

There are Nigerian, Congolese and Cameroonian communities present. [g], The Sinan Erdem Dome, among the largest indoor arenas in Europe, hosted the final of the 2010 FIBA World Championship, the 2012 IAAF World Indoor Championships, as well as the 2011–12 Euroleague and 2016–17 EuroLeague Final Fours.

Visitors and merchants were especially struck by the beautiful monasteries and churches of the city, in particular the Hagia Sophia, or the Church of Holy Wisdom. Stanford and Ezel Shaw (1977): History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. With a system of aqueducts already in place, he ensured access to water through the widening city by the construction of the Binbirdirek Cistern. The siege of the city began in April 1453. With the overwhelming size of his armed forces, and additional advantages gained by the use of gunpowder, he succeeded where his predecessors failed, claiming Constantinople for Muslim rule on May 29, 1453. Fall of Constantinople (May 29, 1453), conquest of Constantinople by Sultan Mehmed II of the Ottoman Empire. [200] Romaniotes and Ashkenazi Jews resided in Istanbul even before the Sephardim, but their proportion has since dwindled; today, 1 percent of Istanbul's Jews are Ashkenazi. Over 12 million foreign visitors came to Istanbul in 2015, five years after it was named a European Capital of Culture, making the city the world's fifth-most popular tourist destination. [261], Many of Istanbul's sports facilities have been built or upgraded since 2000 to bolster the city's bids for the Summer Olympic Games. The Ottoman Parliament was dissolved by the Allies on 11 April 1920 and the Ottoman delegation led by Damat Ferid Pasha was forced to sign the Treaty of Sèvres on 10 August 1920. Along with spurring the spread of iconoclasm in the Empire, Leo III (who ruled from 717 to 741 A.D.) fought off an Arab siege of the city and stabilized the throne after recent years of upheaval. Constantinople was to become one of the great world capitals, a font of imperial and religious power, a city of vast wealth and beauty, and the chief city of the Western world. [11] However, many people escaped again from the city, and there were several outbreaks of plague, so that in 1459 Mehmed allowed the deported Greeks to come back to the city. Alexius V fled. [93] According to historian Philip Mansel: From the late 1940s and early 1950s, Istanbul underwent great structural change, as new public squares, boulevards, and avenues were constructed throughout the city, sometimes at the expense of historical buildings.
The forest originally supplied water to the city and remnants of reservoirs used during Byzantine and Ottoman times survive. [290][291] These public universities are two of just eight across the city;[292] other prominent state universities in Istanbul include the Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, which served as Turkey's primary institution of art until the 1970s,[230] and Marmara University, the country's third-largest institution of higher learning. [311] Following the founding of the Turkish Republic, the plant underwent renovations to accommodate the city's increasing demand; its capacity grew from 23 megawatts in 1923 to a peak of 120 megawatts in 1956. Following the model of Rome, the historic peninsula is said to be characterized by seven hills, each topped by imperial mosques.

In East and South Slavic languages, including in medieval Russia, Constantinople has been referred to as Tsargrad (Царьград) or Carigrad, 'City of the Caesar (Emperor)', from the Slavonic words tsar ('Caesar' or 'King') and grad ('city'). Swift attributed the construction of a series of flying buttresses to shore up the walls of the church, which had been weakened over the centuries by earthquake tremors. In addition to other attractions of the capital, free bread and citizenship were bestowed on those settlers who would fill the empty reaches beyond the old walls.

Fares across modes are integrated, using the contactless Istanbulkart, introduced in 2009, or the older Akbil electronic ticket device.

[284] Today, TRT runs four national radio stations; these stations have transmitters across the country so each can reach over 90 percent of the country's population, but only Radio 2 is based in Istanbul. Volume 1.

[280], Most state-run radio and television stations are based in Ankara, but Istanbul is the primary hub of Turkish media. [66][67] Nevertheless, the destruction wrought by the 1197 fire paled in comparison with that brought by the Crusaders. They were known for their ferocity, honour, and loyalty. [189] Since 1601, the Patriarchate has been based in Istanbul's Church of St.

Greeks had founded Byzantium around 600 BC; its strategic location guaranteed a continual history of siege and capture.

It was an act of vast historical portent. Mehmed II also repaired the city's damaged infrastructure, including the whole water system, began to build the Grand Bazaar, and constructed Topkapı Palace, the sultan's official residence.

[146] Another park, Fethi Paşa Korusu, is on a hillside adjacent to the Bosphorus Bridge in Anatolia, opposite Yıldız Palace in Europe. On April 13, 1204, however, the Crusaders burst into the city to sack it.

[206] Since the mid-1990s, Istanbul's economy has been one of the fastest-growing among OECD metro-regions. Meanwhile, the volume of money in circulation dramatically increased. What is the name of the river that flows through Paris, France? Heraclius, son of the exarch of Africa, set sail for the city and assumed the throne. The medieval Vikings, who had contacts with the empire through their expansion in eastern Europe (Varangians) used the Old Norse name Miklagarðr (from mikill 'big' and garðr 'city'), and later Miklagard and Miklagarth. [61] John II built the monastery of the Pantocrator (Almighty) with a hospital for the poor of 50 beds. [33], In modern Turkish, the name is written as İstanbul, with a dotted İ, as the Turkish alphabet distinguishes between a dotted and dotless I.
As the centuries passed—the Christian empire lasted 1,130 years—Constantinople, seat of empire, was to become as important as the empire itself; in the end, although the territories had virtually shrunk away, the capital endured. Different names are associated with different phases of its history, with different languages, and with different portions of it.

As it descended the First Hill of the city and climbed the Second Hill, it passed on the left the Praetorium or law-court. Korolija Fontana-Giusti, Gordana 'The Urban Language of Early Constantinople: The Changing Roles of the Arts and Architecture in the Formation of the New Capital and the New Consciousness' in, This page was last edited on 26 October 2020, at 23:09. The wealth of the eastern Mediterranean and western Asia flowed into Constantinople.

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