The Sounder is a first time instrument of the geostationary INSAT series designed and developed at ISRO.

Of the three bands, the first two being similar to the NOAA AVHRR bands 1 and 2, provide “vegetation index” observation; the third band is used for snow-cover, snow-cloud discrimination and for aerosol measurements.

The data is then relayed in extended C-band to a central location.

Observation of the Earth and its Environment. The outputs of the three line arrays, providing a total of 900 pixels, are processed to construct 300 image pixels for each band. 11), Figure 6: Illustration of the MET data modulator (image credit: ISRO), Figure 7: Illustration of the deployed INSAT-3D spacecraft (image credit: ISRO), Launch: A launch of INSAT-3D and of GSAT-7 (a multi-band communication satellite of ISRO) is scheduled for Q3 2013 on an Ariane-5 vehicle from Kourou, French Guiana. Launch March 21, 2000 on Ariane-5 from Kourou, dry mass of 970 kg, launch mass of 2070 kg, co-located with INSAT-2E at 83º E, 1.7 kW , NiH2, 70 Ah, 27 cells, 12 extended C-band transponders 5 Ku-band transponders MSS (Mobile Satellite Services), Launch Feb. 3, 2002 on Ariane-4 from Kourou, the S/C is positioned 74º E; launch mass of = 2,750 kg, 24 transponders in C-band 6 in extended C-band 2 S-band transponders 1 MSS (Mobile Satellite Service) transponder, Launch Sept. 12, 2002 on PSLV from SHAR, India; launch mass =1,055 kg. Figure 2: Photo of the INSAT-3A spacecraft during integration at Arianespace (image credit: Arianespace). The satellite has two deployable antennas and three fixed antennas that carry out various transmit and receive functions. The VHRR/2 instrument and the CCD Camera are each operated about 4 times/day.

The objective is to collect data from unattended meteorological platforms in the ground segment. The mission goals call for a significant technological improvement in sensor capabilities as compared to earlier INSAT missions. Two 70 Ah NiH2 batteries support full payload operation during eclipse periods.

The S/C design life is 10 years. The VHRR/2 observes in VIS, water vapor and TIR bands providing a spatial resolution of 2 km in VIS band and 8 km for the rest. • The INSAT-3A spacecraft and its payload are operating nominally in 2011. A MOU between NOAA and MoES was signed in 2008. INSAT-3D is a meteorological satellite of ISRO, an exclusive mission designed for enhanced meteorological observations and monitoring of land and ocean surfaces for weather forecasting and disaster warning. All the extended C-band as well as the Ku-band transponders has India coverage beams.

The instrument features 6 spectral bands (against the 3 bands in previous versions) offering an improved 1 km resolution in the visible band for the monitoring of mesoscale phenomena and severe local storms. The description of the INSAT-3 spacecraft series focuses on the missions with meteorological payloads. Ver 3.0; Last reviewed and updated on 28 Oct, 2020 & Served By: web-pri-srv, Meteorological & Oceanographic Satellite Data Archival Centre.

• Sector frame mode in which the sector can be positioned anywhere in steps of 0.5º in the N-S direction to cover 4.5º N-S x 20º E-W. These uplink carriers are located within ±100 kHz band around the center frequency. Insat 3A © LyngSat, last updated 2020-10-22 - Frequency Beam EIRP (dBW) Provider Name Channel Name: System Encryption The antennas have a pointing accuracy of ±0.2º in pitch and roll axes, and ±0.4º in yaw axis. The S/C mass is 2070 kg at launch, with 1100 kg of hydrazine propellant for orbit raising, station keeping and on-orbit attitude control.

The Mobile Satellite Service transponders operate in C/S band frequencies.

12). • Scan mechanism assembly: Features a gimballed scan mirror which sweeps FOV in two orthogonal axes. NOAA/NESDIS has successfully collaborated with MoES/IMD by establishing a communication link for the exchange of INSAT satellite data & publicly available U.S. Earth observations, in operation since 1999.

INSAT-3A also carries a Ku-band beacon. The S/C design life is 12 years. The mission and its applications involves a technical and scientific cooperation between the following partners in India and the USA: • Ministry of Earth Sciences(MoES) / India Meteorological Department (IMD) and, • NOAA /NESDIS (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration / National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service). • The INSAT-3A spacecraft and its payload are operating nominally in 2010.

The detectors temperature is maintained at 95 K (BOL) and 100 K (EOL). It permits greater accuracy in cyclone tracking and also affords monitoring of local severe storms. INSAT-3C is the second satellite of the INSAT-3 series. It carries twenty four transponders - twelve operating in the normal C-band frequency, six in Extended C-band and six in Ku-band. Compared to INSAT-2C/2D, the power of extended C-band transponders on board INSAT-3B has been increased from 10 W to 15 W and that of Ku-band from 20 W to 55 W. - The INSAT spacecraft series missions are operated by the MCF (Master Control Facility) at Hassan in Karnataka, India. 5), Figure 4: NDVI profile of the CCD Camera on INSAT-3A at 1 km resolution observed on Jan. 7, 2007 (image credit: ISRO), Meteorological payload: (VHRR/2, CCD Camera, DRT, SAS&R). The scan mirror is mounted on a two-axis, gimballed scan mechanism system to generate a 2-D image by sweeping the detector instantaneous field of view (FOV) across the Earth's surface in east to west (fast scan) and north to south (slow scan).

It is equipped with unified bi-propellant thrusters. Launch: INSAT-3B was launched successfully on March 21, 2000 (UTC) from Kourou on an Ariane-5 vehicle (along with a passenger payload called Asia Star of the US company World Space), putting INSAT-3B into GTO (Geostationary Transfer Orbit).

The DRT receives globally metrological, hydrological and oceanographic data from automatic DCPs (Data Collection Platforms) in the ground segment and relays back to downlink in Extended C -band.

This will also provide for growth of MET payload data rate in future. The instrument requirements call for soundings at 10 km ground resolution every 3 hours for a full frame scan. The data from these payloads are being used for comprehensive weather status and forecasting. It is located at 93.5 degree East longitude.It is third satellite in INSAT-3 series after INSAT-3B & INSAT-3C.Built at a cost of $53 mn, it provides communication, weather, and search and rescue services. This enables the derivation of vertical profiles of temperature and humidity.

For the first time, an indigenously developed titanium propellant tank, with special propellant management device that ensures bubble-free propellant supply under zero-G environment, has been employed. The S/C structure is a cuboid of 2.0 m x 1.77 m x 2.8 m with a solar array on the south and solar sail & boom on the north (deployed length of 24.4 m). VHRR/2 is an optomechanical system (whiskbroom type imager).

10-25, URL:

Orbit of INSAT-3A: Geostationary orbit, nominal altitude ~35,786 km, location at 93.5º east longitude. The 0.4º south stepping of the mirror after each east-west scan provides the generation of successive image strips. Metrological payload monitors Earth’s surface and carries out oceanic observations and also provides data dissemination capabilities. RF communication of DRT: Uplink frequency = 402.75 MHz; downlink frequency = 4506.05 MHz; bandwidth = ± 100 kHz; EIRP = 21 dBW (min). The mission is described on the eoPortal under the Kalpana-1 title. S/C propulsion is provided by 440 N Liquid Apogee Motor with MON-3 and Control (Mixed Oxides of Nitrogen) and MMH (Mono Methyl Hydrazine) for orbit raising.

6407, Goa, India, Nov. 13, 2006, DOI: 10.1117/12.697880, 8) R. R. Kelkar, “Indias INSAT-3D Satellite Mission,” April 2008, URL:, 9) A. K. Sharma, “Implementing arrangement regarding INSAT-3D Satellite Data,” Sept. 11, 2008, URL:, 10) “Implementing Arrangement Regarding INSAT-3D Satellite Data (IA-3D),” URL:, 11), 12) “Arianespace to launch GSAT 7 and INSAT 3D satellites for India,” Arianespace Press Release, Oct. 17, 2012, URL:, 13) M. R. Pandya, D. B. Shah, H. J. Trivedi, S. Panigrahy, “Simulation of at-sensor radiance over land for proposed thermal channels of Imager payload onboard INSAT-3D satellite using MODTRAN model,” Journal of Earth System Science, Vol.

14) Madhu Prasad, Basavaraj S. Akkimaradi, Santram, T. Selvan, Subramanya, S. C. Rastogi, K. Badrinarayana, D. R. Bhandari, M. Sugumar, B. Mallesh, K. S. Rajam, Indira Rajgopalan, V. K. W. Grips, J. N. Balaraju, A. K. Saxena, R. Ismail Jabilullah, M. Viswanathan,Ganesh Shanbhog, “Development of Sunshield Panels for Passive Radiant Cooler On Board Meteorological Instruments of ISRO,” RASE 2009, URL: 15) “Optical Polishing for Development of Highly Specular Sunshield for Radiant Coolers of Meteorological Satellites of ISRO,” ISRO-ISAC-TR-0908, Issue No. The optical system includes a gold-film dichoric beam-splitter that transmits visible light energy and reflects WV/TIR energy, so that the radiation from the Earth is channelized to the visible and IR focal planes simultaneously. 6 Ku-band transponders 1 SASAR transponder, Launch Sept. 28, 2003 on Ariane-5 from Kourou, launch mass= 2775 kg, 24 transponders in C-band 12 in extended C-band, Launch planned for 2013 on Ariane-5 from Kourou, Imager (6 bands), Sounder (19 channels), DCS (DRT), SASAR, Table 1: Overview of INSAT-3 satellite series (chronological order).

The INSAT-3B communication payload provides 12 extended C-band channels, each having a bandwidth of 36 MHz. number of lines = 31). The satellite uses a passive thermal control system. The nominal frame repetition rates are: 40, 30 and 20 minutes respectively. The information compiled and edited in this article was provided by Herbert J. Kramer from his documentation of: ”Observation of the Earth and Its Environment: Survey of Missions and Sensors” (Springer Verlag) as well as many other sources after the publication of the 4th edition in 2002. The TFOV (Total Field of View) of the mirror is ±13º in the E-W and ±10º in the N-S direction, while the actual image is ±5º in E-W and ±5º in the N-S direction. 1). Please see details here. The incoming solar radiation is reflected onto a Ritchey-Chretien telescope of 20 cm aperture by a beryllium scan mirror mounted at 45º to the optical axis.

VHRR/2 was developed by SAC (Satellite Application Center), Ahmedabad, India.

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