Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 5 deg W in 1985-1988 As of 3 September 2001 located at 4.82 deg E drifting at 0.111 deg E per day. [5] The incident marked the first verified case of a collision with a piece of catalogued space debris. The project was Western Europe's second attempt to develop its own launcher following the unsuccessful Europaproject. Geostationary position 177.5 deg E. MARECS PAC 1 is a geostationary maritime mobile communication satellite which will form part of the INMARSAT world-wide maritime communication satellite network. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 118.63E drifting at 3.947E degrees per day. Move to a new position. Communications satellite. France first proposed the Ariane project and it was officially agreed upon at the end of 1973 after discussions between France, Germany and the UK. Updates? Brazilsat 1 & 2 were the first two elements of Brazil's national Sistema Barasilero de Telecommunicacoes por Satelite (SBTS) network. Ariane 4 was even more powerful than Ariane 3. European communications; 10 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 10 deg E in 1987-1988; 13 deg E in 1989-1991; 7 deg E in 1991-1993; 25 deg E in 1993-1999 As of 2 September 2001 located at 33.14 deg E drifting at 0.002 deg E per day. Payload: 2,700 kg (5,900 lb) to a GTO. The first test launch of the Ariane 5, in June 1996, was a spectacular failure, but in subsequent years the vehicle operated reliably. Last Launch: 1989-07-12. He was a member of the NASA Advisory Council... An Ariane 5G launch vehicle at the European Space Agency's launch base in Kourou, Fr.Guia., on Feb. 25, 2004. B1-B2 have dedicated transponders for government use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 87 deg W in 1988-1997; 83 deg W in 1997-1999 As of 2 September 2001 located at 107.85 deg W drifting at 2.220 deg W per day. The name comes from the French spelling of the mythological character Ariadne. The first two stages of Ariane 2–4 were fueled by a mixture of UMDH and hydrazine, with nitrogen peroxide as an oxidizer; the third stage used cryogenic fuel. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 34.65E drifting at 8.341W degrees per day. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 93 deg E in 1988-1989 As of 4 September 2001 located at 58.51 deg E drifting at 0.073 deg E per day. Stationed at 5 deg W; business communications. The amount of light emitted by an object in a unit of time is known as: Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. 1988-1-C (Telecom 1C). Launching states: Australia and France. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 86.72E drifting at 0.424E degrees per day. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 93 deg W in 1989-1996; 105 deg W in 1996-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 105.39 deg W drifting at 0.005 deg W per day. With a much more powerful upper stage than previous Ariane models, the Ariane 5 is capable of carrying a 10,500-kg (23,100-pound) satellite to geostationary orbit. Geostationary orbit position 10 +/- 0.1; afterwards 7 +/- 0.1 deg E. EUTELSAT 2 is a regional geostationary satellite for European countries. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 103 deg W in 1985-1996; 105 deg W in 1997-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 105.33 deg W drifting at 0.011 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 7 located at 32.58W drifting at 2.263W degrees per day. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 8 deg W in 1984-1992 As of 4 September 2001 located at 142.83 deg W drifting at 6.735 deg W per day. This page was last edited on 15 October 2020, at 14:02. For example, an Ariane 42P is an Ariane 4 with two solid-fuel boosters. This location allows launches to take full advantage of the velocity imparted by Earth’s rotation, meaning that the spacecraft’s onboard fuel can be conserved, thus extending orbital life. Ku band communications satellite. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 11.08W drifting at 6.728W degrees per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 120.92E drifting at 5.702W degrees per day. New position: 345 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 177 deg E in 1984-1986; 26 deg W in 1986-1990; 55 deg W in 1990-1992; 15 deg W in 1992-1997; 26 deg W in 1997-on. Subtopics. The latter are also used for a data relay experiment with ESA's EURECA satellite. On 4 May 2007, an Ariane 5-ECA rocket set a new commercial payload record, lifting two satellites with a combined mass of 9.4 tonnes. With a thrust of 5,700 kilonewtons (1.3 million pounds), it could place a 4,800-kg (11,000-pound) satellite in geostationary orbit. Ariane 1 was a three-stage launcher, derived from missile technology. The French space agency, Centre National d’Études Spatiales (CNES), has managed Ariane development and upgrades under the auspices of the ESA, with a number of European countries contributing to the program’s budget and carrying out a share of development and production work. [8], "Full thrust on Europe's new Ariane 6 rocket", "Ariane 5 launches ATV-2 for journey to the ISS", "Ariane's 250th mission is a success: TIBA-1 and Inmarsat GX5 are in orbit! US domestic communications; 87 deg W. C, Ku band communications satellite. The Ariane project was code-named L3S (the French abbreviation for third-… 1988-1-C (Telecom 1C). As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 57.69E drifting at 5.323W degrees per day. With a thrust of 5,700 kilonewtons (1.3 million pounds), it could place a 4,800-kg (11,000-pound) satellite in geostationary orbit. Omissions? Payload: 24 C-band transponders with 6 spares, 10 W TWTA, EIRP >34 dBW over most of Brazilian territory Financial/Operational: Contract issued in 1990 for 2 units HS-376W. This is a particular advantage for revenue-producing commercial satellites, which can get an extra year or more of life from being launched near the Equator. Ariane is a series of a European civilian expendable launch vehicles for space launch use. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 80.89E drifting at 0.154W degrees per day. Arianespace launches Ariane rockets from the Guiana Space Centre at Kourou in French Guiana. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Some families include both missiles and carrier rockets; they are listed in both groups. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 10 deg E in 1984; 7 deg E in 1984-1990; 2 deg E in 1991; 1 deg E in 1992-1993 As of 5 September 2001 located at 62.27 deg W drifting at 5.317 deg W per day. The Ariane project was code-named L3S (the French abbreviation for third-generation substitution launcher). Stationed at 177.5 deg E; maritime communications; leased by Inmarsat. B1-B2 have dedicated transponders for government use. Number: 11 . In January 1980 the ESA decided to entrust Arianespace—an organization owned by both public and private sector entities—with the management of Ariane production and launch for government use and also with the marketing of the vehicle to commercial customers. Stationed at 70 degrees W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 105 deg W in 1986-1992; 125 deg W in 1992-1997 As of 5 September 2001 located at 148.11 deg W drifting at 1.728 deg W per day. First is the total number of boosters, then letters designating liquid- or solid-fueled stages. [6], On February 16, 2011, the 200th Ariane rocket was launched, successfully carrying the Johannes Kepler ATV into low Earth orbit and providing International Space Station with supplies. Status: Retired 1989. The European Space Agency (ESA) charged Airbus Defence and Space, with the development of all Ariane launchers and of the testing facilities, while Arianespace, a 32.5% CNES (French government space agency) commercial subsidiary created in 1980, handles production, operations and marketing. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 65 deg W in 1985-1994; 63 deg W in 1994-1996; 79 deg W in 1996-1998; 144 deg W in 1998-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 143.96 deg W drifting at 0.005 deg E per day. [citation needed] Attesting to the ubiquity of Ariane launch vehicles, France's Cerise satellite, which was orbited by an Ariane in 1995,[4] struck a discarded Ariane rocket stage in 1996. There are two versions of the upper stage, one hypergolic and restartable with a single Aestus engine [2] and the other with a HM7B cryogenic engine burning LH2/LOX. John M. Logsdon is Professor Emeritus of Political Science and International Affairs at George Washington University’s Elliott School of International Affairs. Country: France. Registration France 1984-2.B (Telecom 1A) 1985-2.B (Telecom 1B). As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 145.69E drifting at 2.591W degrees per day. Launch vehicle Ariane 3 launch vehicle of Arianespace, 24th flight of Ariane and 9th flight of the Ariane 3 version. Ariane 3, the more powerful of the two new models, had a thrust of 4,000 kilonewtons (900,000 pounds), which could carry a 2,700-kg (5,900-pound) satellite to geostationary orbit. Stationed at 8 deg W. Communications satellite. The first launch of the Ariane 1 vehicle took place in December 1979. Stationed at 103 deg W. Ku band communications satellite. LEO Payload: 2,700 kg (5,900 lb). Stationed at 93.5 deg E; also performed communications tasks. The project was Western Europe's second attempt to develop its own launcher following the unsuccessful Europa project. Payload: 2,700 kg (5,900 lb). Brazilsat 1 & 2 were the first two elements of Brazil's national Sistema Barasilero de Telecommunicacoes por Satelite (SBTS) network. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 164 deg E in 1987-1993; 156 deg E in 1993-1995; 152 deg E in 1995-1999 As of 4 September 2001 located at 163.96 deg E drifting at 0.005 deg W per day. Because the core cannot lift its own weight, two solid-fuel boosters are strapped to the sides. A strong impetus for developing the more powerful Ariane 5 was the ESA’s ambition to launch a manned space glider named Hermes. Eutelsat I F5 - . Ariane 1 was 50 metres (164 feet) tall and had a thrust at liftoff of 2,400 kilonewtons (550,000 pounds), which allowed it to launch an 1,850-kg (4,070-pound) satellite into geostationary orbit. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 93 deg E in 1988-1989 As of 4 September 2001 located at 58.51 deg E drifting at 0.073 deg E per day. Among the many European satellites launched by Ariane have been Giotto, the probe to Halley’s Comet; Hipparcos, the stellar distance-measuring satellite; Rosetta, a comet rendezvous mission; and Envisat, a large Earth-observing satellite. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Stationed at 7 deg E. Launch time 1333 UT. The first Ariane 4 vehicle was launched in June 1988. Corrections? Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The name comes from the French spelling of the mythological character Ariadne. After the failure of efforts during the 1960s to develop a space launch vehicle through cooperation between several European countries, France in 1973 persuaded its European partners to give it the lead role in a new program to create such a vehicle, named after Ariadne (Ariane in French), the mythical Cretan princess who helped Theseus escape from the Labyrinth. Longitude 164 deg E +/- 0.5. First Launch: 1984-08-04. Geosynchronous orbit longitude 93.5 +/- 0.1 deg east. Spacecraft: Based on Hughes HS-376, single antenna on despun platform, spin stabilised, hydrazine thrusters, body mounted solar cells provide 982 W BOL. French domestic communications; 5 deg E. Communications satellite. European communications; 13 deg E. ECS-5/Eutelsat I F5 is a regional geostationary telecommunications satellite for European countries. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 102.26W drifting at 7.597W degrees per day. Ariane 5 is a nearly complete redesign. It is operated by the EUTELSAT organization. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 31.52E drifting at 0.011E degrees per day. Registration France 1984-2.B (Telecom 1A) 1985-2.B (Telecom 1B). Strap-on booster engine for Ariane 42P, Ariane 44LP, Ariane 44P. Payload: ECS 5. Ariane 1 was liquid-fueled; it originally used a mixture of unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UMDH) and nitrogen tetroxide. ", Downloadable paper models of various ESA spacecraft (Ariane at the bottom), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ariane_(rocket_family)&oldid=983657907, Articles containing potentially dated statements from February 2019, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2009, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 240,000–470,000 kg (530,000–1,040,000 lb), 720,000–780,000 kg (1,590,000–1,720,000 lb), 500,000–900,000 kg (1,100,000–2,000,000 lb).

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+ How we made $200K with 4M downloads.

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